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USA 1945-74: A Divided Union

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Anthony Jackson

on 1 November 2014

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Transcript of USA 1945-74: A Divided Union

USA 1945-74: A Divided Union
Red Scare
Specification:
A8 A divided union: Civil rights in the USA,
1945–74
• McCarthyism and the Red Scare
• Civil Rights in the 1950s
• The impact of Martin Luther King and of Black Power
• Protest movements: students, women, anti-Vietnam
• Nixon and Watergate
1945 - 1949
Internal Factors
External factors
Civil Rights in the 1950s
Changing Nature of Civil Rights Movement
Protest Movements
Student
Women
Watergate
Sit Ins
Freedom Rides
Peace Marches
Albany
Birmingham
Washington
Martin Luther King
Civil Rights Legislation
Civil Rights Act
Voting Rights Act
Black Power
Malcolm X
Black Panthers
McCarthyism
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Little Rock
1972
1974
1973
Early Life
Malcolm Little was born on May 19, 1925, in Omaha, Nebraska, the fourth of seven children to Earl Little and Louise Norton.
Little was originally a slaves surname, a black slave taking the name of his white owner.
Father died by white supremacists
When he was thirteen, his mother was placed in a mental hospital, and he was placed in a series of foster homes. In 1946, at age 20, he went to prison for breaking and entering.
In prison, Malcolm X became a member of the Nation of Islam and after his parole in 1952 he quickly rose to become one of its leaders.
Changed his name to Malcolm X
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
Background
Origins: The black power movement was started by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, in Oakland California. It started as a revolutionary left wing party.
Sit-in at the Woolworth Lunch Counter
Greensboro - February 1st 1960
20th of september 1957

Birth: January 15, 1929. Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Death: April 4, 1968. Memphis, Tennessee, USA (assassination by gunshot)

Known for:
-Leading the civil rights movement in the United States
-Advocating nonviolent protest against segregation and racial discrimination


Did You Know?
King's nonviolent doctrine was strongly influenced by the teachings of Indian leader Mohandas Gandhi.
The impacts.
Secret Government documents were found in the hands of a small magazine
- increased the fear of spying
The magazine later printed an editorial supporting the communist take over of China.

Sit-Ins in The Civil Rights Movement
The Birmingham Campaign rekindled the Civil Rights movement after the failure of the Albany Campaign
It started on the 6th April 1963
The Canadian Government reported Soviet spies were working in Canada
Federal Employee Loyalty Programme (FELP)

- Executive Order No. 9835

- 6.6 million government workers were questioned:
- Did they belong to the Communist Party?
- Had they ever belonged to it?
- Did they sympathize with it?

The House of Un-American Activities Committee
- Questioned 19 hollywood workers, 10 refused to answer. They were sent to jail for one year
What Is A Sit-In?
Causes for campaign
Influence
Sit-ins are a form of non-violent protest, mostly used during the Civil Rights Movement.
A sit-in is where a group of protesters (usually students) "sit-in" a service, such as a restaurant, filling up the seats and refusing to leave, until force must be applied to be rid of them, gaining the higher moral ground and getting their protest point across.
-This was the start of change in the getting rid of discrimination
in the education in America.

-It gave American students a chance to make their own opinions on
black people, many genraly thought against what they had been told.

-It showed that the blacks had the federal support in the matter of desegregation of schools.
Aims: Combat police violence in black neighbourhoods.
To speed up the civil rights movement.
Main reason was to secure voter registration for blacks
A summary of what happend and events.
The civil rights movement tried to put pressure on the new government to push through the civil nrights act.
Timeline:
-1954 Selected as pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama
-1955-1956 Led a successful effort to desegregate buses during the Montgomery Bus Boycott
-1957 Found and became the first President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
- 1963 Wrote 'Letter from Birmingham Jail,' during the Birmingham March
-1963 Delivered his 'I Have a Dream' speech to civil rights marchers at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.
-1968 Was assassinated at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee
Manifesto (ten point plan)
November 1961
What Happened?
Economic and Internal policy:
1. Full employment for blacks
2. Economic exploitation by capitalists to be ended.
3. Decent housing
4.Education equal to whites and that exposes racism in American society.
The campaign was also to ensure desegregation on buses, in rest rooms and in lunch counters in Albany.
The Little Rock Nine were a group of african americanswho were put forth to the Little Rock Central High School. Little Rock is in the state of Arkansas and at the time the Govenor to the state was Orval Faubus.

Faubus was a goner who had a mass amount of votes from the black community but it all changed when he was in desperate need to gain more votes and he was rapidly losing votes from the anti-black communtity.

When it came to the little rock nine he decided to get his votes by not allowing the nine into the school. This caused outrage in the black community but the nine still went in a group except for one named Elizabeth Eckford who was not informed that they were to arrive all in a group. She was left to enter alone but ended up being escorted onto a bus by a very kind lady.

There were white protestors so the president who at the time was Eisenhower decided that he would send in the state troopers but this still did not stop the protestors. Eventually, Faubus had a meeting with the president to discuss the matter.

Eventually, an agreement came up that would allow the little rock nine to go to this school. In retaliation to this agreement faubus withdrew the state troopers and put in place only the local police force. The protestors got worse and worse until again the president intervened again and sent in the 101 paratrooper division to sort it out.

From here onwards things just kept getting better each of the little rock nine had a paratrooper to escort them around the school.
Most Famous Quote:

'I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.' August, 1963, in the I Have a Dream speech given to civil rights supporters at the March on Washington.
Greensboro,
North Carolina
Activists were attacking on a wide front trying to deal with all kinds of segregation
Legacy
Alger Hiss was accused by Whittaker Chambers of supplying the Communist Party with over 200 State Department documents
Chambers showed Richard Nixon a microfilm he had kept in one of his pumpkins which prooved this.
They were called "The Pumpkin Papers"

During April and May daily sit-ins and mass marches organized and led by movement leader James Bevel were met with police repression, tear gas, attack dogs, fire hoses, and arrests. More than 3,000 people were arrested during these protests, almost all of them high-school age children.
1st step
Finished
2nd step
Spark
Last step
He is credited with raising the self-esteem of black Americans and reconnecting them with their African heritage.
He is largely responsible for the spread of Islam in the black community in the United States.
He urged Blacks to take pride in their race and to take action to claim their civil and human rights.
He wanted complete segregation, not desegregation. He hated the name 'negro'.
Rejected the non-violent ideology the Martin-Luther King adopted, he saw self-defense against whites as a legitimate weapon.
He never undertook violent actions himself but now the Black Muslims were an established force that were very dangerous to white society.
law and enforcement policy:
1. All black men in federal and state prisons to be freed.
2.When brought to trial blacks must be judged by a black jury.
3.To end police brutality and violence
During The Civil Rights Movement, students in Greensboro were taught to "non-violently" protest. One form of this was Sit-Ins. One problem at the time was the segregation in lunch counters.
On February 1st, four students Sat In a Woolworth lunch counter, at the whites' counter. They were not served and asked to leave. Instead of leaving, they stayed
The campaign used a variety of nonviolent methods of confrontation, including sit-ins, kneel-ins at local churches, and a march to the county building to mark the beginning of a drive to register voters.
Who was Invovlved
The campaign, however, was faltering because the movement was running out of demonstrators willing to risk arrest. James Bevel, SCLC's Director of Direct Action and Nonviolent Education, came up with a bold and controversial alternative, to train high school students to take part in the demonstrations. As a result, more than one thousand students skipped school on May 2 to meet at the 16th Street Baptist Church to join the demonstrations, in what would come to be called the Children's Crusade. More than six hundred ended up in jail.
Background: African Americans had the right to vote but were prevented from doing so via things such as literacy tests and poll taxes
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of national legislation in the United States that outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the U.S.
Detail:

President Lyndon Baines Johnson attempted to persuade Congress to pass his Voting Rights Act. This proposed legislation removed the right of states to impose restrictions on who could vote in elections. Johnson explained how: "Every American citizen must have an equal right to vote. Yet the harsh fact is that in many places in this country men and women are kept from voting simply because they are Negroes."

Although opposed by politicians from the Deep South, the Voting Rights Act was passed by large majorities in the House of Representatives (333 to 48) and the Senate (77 to 19). The legislation empowered the national government to register those whom the states refused to put on the voting list.
Lyndon B Johnson's speech conerning the act
Background/ brief introduction
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was the second largest political rally for human rights in United States history and called for civil and economic rights for African Americans.
It took place in Washington, D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963.
Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech.
MOAR detail:

Echoing the language of the 15th Amendment, the Act prohibits states from imposing any "voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or standard, practice, or procedure ... to deny or abridge the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color." Specifically, Congress intended the Act to outlaw the practice of requiring otherwise qualified voters to pass literacy tests in order to register to vote, a principal means by which Southern states had prevented African-Americans from exercising the franchise. The Act was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, a Democrat, who had earlier signed the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law.

The Act established extensive federal oversight of elections administration, providing that states with a history of discriminatory voting practices (so-called "covered jurisdictions") could not implement any change affecting voting without first obtaining the approval of the Department of Justice, a process known as preclearance. These enforcement provisions applied to states and political subdivisions (mostly in the South) that had used a "device" to limit voting and in which less than 50 percent of the population was registered to vote in 1964
CORE wanted to put pressure on JFK with regard to segregation on public transport. This was because, 6 years earlier, the citizens of Montgomery, Alabama, had protested against segregation on transport with the "Montgomery Bus Boycott" of 1956.
Because of this boycott and the events which followed, the Supreme ruled that "segregated buses be unconstitutional." However, this ruling was made under Federal law, and the riders were trying to see if the Federal government had forced the ruling to be made State law as well, or whether the States did not want to be affected by Federal law, and wanted to be in control of their laws.
To challenge State law the riders were going to ride across the Southern States of the USA, in a bus where whites sat at the back and blacks sat at the front, going against the normal routine where whites sat at the front and blacks sat at the back. The black people waited in "white" waiting rooms and the white people waited in "colored" waiting rooms. This was aimed to try and push the laws to the limit to see if they could "hold".
Why did the Freedom Rides Happen?
The Washington March waas very famous as it was the place in which Martin Luther King JR delivered his famous I have a dream speech.
Why did a student movement develop?
Students opposed U.S political leadership.
Dissatisfied with American culture
Vietnam War
Unhappy with society that their parents had created.
One
Two
Three
(cc) photo by medhead on Flickr
Senator Joseph McCarthy
- At the height of the fears in 1950, there appeared a senator who, in a very short time created hysteria about Communism.
- 9th of Feb McCarty addressed a Republican meeting and stated he had a list of 205 communists working in the state dep.
What happened because of McCarthyism?
HUAC-house of Un-American activities committee
- A Senate Commitee was set up to investigate the 'claims' McCarthy made. After several weeks, it was deemed that his calims were 'a fraud and a hoax'. However later Tydings (the Commitee Chairman) was branded a communist.
- Many were now afraid of speaking out against McCarthy, for fear of being branded Communists.
Began investigating Communist infiltration in the American film industry
Lead to Hollywood 10-writers and directors had to testify before HUAC
HUAC asked if they were or had ever been involved with the CPUSA
Refused to answer and sent to prison for 1 year for suspicion of involvement
‘Black-listed’ out of film industry’
Growth Of McCarthy's Influence
FELP-federal employee loyalty programme
Truman implemented the Federal Employee Loyalty Programme
6.6 million government employees were interviewed and questioned
Questions - “did they belong to the CPUSA?”
“Had they ever belonged to the CPUSA?”
“Did they sympathize with the CPUSA?”
As a result > 3000 employees resigned
>200 employees sacked and often black-listed
Alger Hiss case
-McCarthy was made Chairman of the Government Commitee on Opertionsof the Senate and this allowed him to investigate state bodies and interveiw individuals on their political beliefs.
In 1948, Alger Hiss, an employee of the state department was brought in front of HUAC
Whittaker Chambers, a former soviet agent, told HUAC that Hiss had given him secret documents 10 years earlier, when Chambers worked for the Soviets.
Truman dismissed the case and called the charges against Hiss a "red herring"
Hiss was tried for perjury (lying under oath) and spent 5 years in prison.
Note that at no stage was he convicted of spying.
Elisabeth Eckford
The Little Rock Nine
Orval Faubus.
Orval Eugene Faubus (January 7, 1910 — December 14, 1994) was the 36th Governor of Arkansas, serving from 1955 to 1967. He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of Little Rock public schools during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied a unanimous decision of the United States Supreme Court by ordering the Arkansas National Guard to stop African American students from attending Little Rock Central High School. Despite his initial staunch segregationist stances, Faubus moderated his positions later in life.
The Little Rock Nine
1.Ernest Green,
2.Elizabeth Eckford,
3.Jefferson Thomas,
4.Terrence Roberts,
5.Carlotta Walls,
6.Minniejean Brown,
7.Gloria Ray,
8.Thelma Mothershed,
9.Melba Pattillo
Key Events
May 4 1951: 13 riders, of which 7 were white and 6 were black, left Washington D.C
Was it Successful?
1945
2010
1946
Note that all of these happened due the accusations of Senator Joseph McCarthy and the wild techniques he used:
USSR detonates the Atomic Bomb
-Americans sure they must have been supplied with information by spies

Julius and Ethnel Rosenberg
were arrested on suspicion of spying. They had formerly been members of the Communist Party but had no links by 1949

May 14 1951: The bus was attacked between Atlanta and Birmingham. The exits to the bus were blocked and a firebomb was chucked in one of the bus's windows. 12 riders were hospitalised and the bus was destroyed. Robert Kennedy (Attorney General) said afterwards that "if violence had won at Birmingham, it would have been fatal for the movement." The recovery from the attack at Birmingham showed that whatever happened, whether the riders were beaten of verbally abused they would continue on riding through the states.
Why did it start?
1945
1947
1946
Some blacks in the civil rights campaign that the theory of non violent protest was too slow and pain filled. Some also believed that the civil rights bill was just a meaningless piece of paper and didn't make a difference to the actions of police and opinions of white people in society.
In the end, despite gaining a bit of recognition, the student movement wasn't really very successful. By the late 1960's, most hippies had become bored and went back to their original life in order to gain jobs.
"Scatter-Gun" apporach- he would keep accusing until he found a communist
Succesful minister for Nation of Islam, being a prominent speaker, he put forward many ideas about black pride and power
He saw Black people as Africans, not Americans and they should act like their fore-fathers, growing afros and wearing african clothes.
He rejected White society and democratic views. Blacks needed to create their own future, without White aid.
He drew attention to the Ghettos int he North that were full of crime and drugs and said they needed investment (unemployment). If nothing happened, violence would occur on a national scale, which scared the White population.
He was very radical in what he thought and was not scared to share his views.
"If you throw enough mud at a wall, some of it will stick"- if you accuse enough people of being communist then you'll find the real ones in the end
Robert Kennedy demanded some form of transport for the riders. He wanted the Governor of Alabama to guarantee their safe passage.
Potsdam Conference
July 16 - August 2
Reasons for the Boycott
"The multiple untruth"
By law in Montgomery, Alabama a black person had to give up their seat to a white man and could not sit in the same row as blacks. I fyou didn't you would be arrested
In 1949 when when
Jo Ann Robinson
, a black member of the Women's Political Party had a traumatic experience on a bus and wanted to protest she was dismissed and told
"it's a fact of life in Montgomery".
But after the Brown vs Topeka Board of Education she managed to raise support for the protest but yet again they would have to wait for the right person to be arrested under segregation laws.
Facts and figures:
"Witch Hunt"
1948
In the first half of 1968, there were over 100 demonstrations against the Vietnam War, involving 40,000 students.
Bombs set off at Berkley, Yale and Stanford universities.
4 students killed and 11 injured at Kent State university, Ohio, 1970.
As a result of this, 400 colleges were closed as 2 million students went on strike.
1949
Events Leading up to it
Leaders from America, (Harry Truman)
Russia, (Joseph Stalin) and England
(Clement Attlee) gathered at Potsdam in Germany to
discuss post war matters. With no Churchill inbetween
Stalin and Truman, there were many disagreements. The following are the main 3 points on which they disagreed:
Reparations
: Truman was unhappy over the size of reparations demanded by Stalin even though Russia had lost 27 million men to America and England's 800,000.
What to do with Germany
: Stalin wanted to completely cripple Germany as payback for his countrys' terrible losses during the war. Truman and Attlee thought differently. Also, territorially, Stalin wanted control of Eastern Germany.
Soviet policy in Eastern Europe
: With Stalin setting up his Communist regime

in the Eastern countries of Europe, Truman and Attlee felt nervous.
This meeting led to friction and tension between the three countries, with America and England seemingly opposed to Stalin and Russia. Truman was very wary of Stalin and could see what lay ahead.
Success: This party helped embedd the bill of civil rights into
american society, there was still discrimination and police violence later on. An example of this would be the Rodney King beatings. However this did give the oppotunity to young african americans to get out of the ghettos and try to make it big
Saturday May 20: 21 Freedom Riders left for Montgomery, with protection from a contingent of the Alabama State Highway Control. The plan was to have a private plane flying overhead, with a police patrol car every few miles, just in case the bus was attacked. Having reached the outskirts of Montgomery, all sign of protection disappeared and the riders were once again alone.
Key Events
May 20: Having lost the promised protection as it entered Montgomery, the bus arrived safely at the stop. However, from the bus shelter appeared a white mob who carried iron bars and baseball bats. At this moment the bravery of the Freedom Riders, especially the
white riders who would get the worst beating
from the mob, shone through, as the decision
was made to go out the front of the bus and face
the mob, instead of running away out the back.
The white riders were targeted for the first 30
seconds, and then the mob moved onto the black
riders. John Seigenthaler, a negotiator for the
government was knocked down by a member of
the mob with a metal pipe while trying to protect
a black, female rider. This shows that even federal
employees were physically abused when helping
black people.
"Better Dead than Red!"
The Hollywood ten
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
The Pumpkin Papers
The USSR's first Atomic Bomb
Impact

The impact of this act was dramatic. By the end of 1966, only 4 out of the traditional 13 Southern states, had less than 50% of African Americans registered to vote. By 1968, even hard-line Mississippi had 59% of African Americans registered. In the longer term, far more African Americans were elected into public office. The Act was the boost that the civil rights cause needed to move it swiftly along and Johnson has to take full credit for this. As Martin Luther King had predicted in earlier years, demonstrations served a good purpose but real change would only come through the power of Federal government. Johnson proved this. V Sanders has called what he did as a "legislative revolution". Johnson had one break in that he worked with a Congress that had a majority of Democrats serving in it and as a Democrat president both could work well together.
The Rosenbergs after being found guilty of spying and sentenced to death
Alger Hiss
Whittaker Chambers
Churchill's 'Iron Curtain'
speech -March 5
Executive Order 9835
In Fulton, Missouri, Churchill presented
his 'Sinews of Peace' - better known as his
Iron Curtain speech
Causes
In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, thus abolishing slavery in the United States. However, over a hundred years later, black African-Americans throughout the US were still not free from the prejudice and discrimination inflicted on them by whites, who believed that the Negros were ‘inferior’ to them purely due to the colour of their skin.
The Plessey vs. Ferguson case of 1896 ended in a controversial ruling that facilities for black and white Americans could be ‘separate but equal’; meaning that segregation in the States was legal and could continue.
However, in the late 1950s, when attention was again drawn to America’s domestic events following WWII and the Cold War, the facilities were far from ‘equal’, with blacks having to give up their seats to whites on buses and lunch parlours being segregated to the extent that blacks were forced to beg at the back door while white customers ate at the comfortable front counters.
In 1954, it was ruled that segregated facilities in schools were unconstitutional following the Oliver Brown vs. Topeka Board case. Bus Boycotts began in Montgomery in 1955 and Martin Luther King was first recognised in response to these in 1956. In 1957, Eisenhower, as President, protected nine students attempting to enrol at Little Rock High School and sit-ins started in 1960.
Later in 1960, John F. Kennedy was voted in as President of the US and began to support blacks throughout America. In 1961 James Meredith won his battle to enrol at ‘Ole Miss’ with the President’s help. Kennedy began to draw up plans for a Civil Rights Act which would give blacks and whites equal rights in the United States.
During the early 1960s, Martin Luther King’s popularity rose rapidly through his inspiring speeches and methods of non-violent protest. This came to its climax in 1963 at the March on Washington, where King gave his ‘I have a Dream’ speech to over 250,000 African–Americans at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington. To this day the speech is one of the most inspirational of all time.
Following this, pressure mounted on Kennedy and the Federal government to pass the Civil Rights Act. However, later that year, the President was shot dead in Texas while riding in an open-topped car in Dallas. He was succeeded by Lyndon B. Johnson.
Event
In early 1964, the new President, Johnson, continued what Kennedy had begun as he got closer and closer to signing the Civil Rights bill. His support from the black population began to grow and by the middle of the year a wave of public sympathy passed through America. On July 2nd 1964, the Civil Rights Act was signed by Johnson, thus ending years of discrimination and segregation against black African-Americans in the US.
The full title of the bill was as follows:
‘An act to enforce the constitutional right to vote, to confer jurisdiction upon the district courts of the United States of America to provide relief against discrimination in public accommodations, to authorize the Attorney General to institute suits to protect constitutional rights in public facilities and public education, to extend the Commission on Civil Rights, to prevent discrimination in federally assisted programs, to establish a Commission on Equal Employment Opportunity, and for other purposes.’
A segregated bus
(cc) photo by medhead on Flickr
The
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People)
and the
MIA (Montgomery Improvement Association)
were waiting for the right person to be arrested so they could begin their campaign for desegregation on buses. Claudette Colvin was arrested on the bus in March 1955 and
E.D. Nixon
, a top lawyer supporting the case, found out she was pregnant and they would have to wait.
But on the 1st December 1955,
Rosa Parks
, a seamstress was arrested for not giving up her seat to a white man. The bus driver called the police and she was arrested for disorderly conduct and disobeying the bus driver. Nixon saw this as their perfect oppotunity; Parks was a long serving NAACP member and was completely innocent. They planned their one day bus boycott. As MLK later wrote
“the once dormant and quiescent Negro community was now fully awake.”
Black People
White People
other minorities
There was an interesting ratio of black to white people at the march. Observers estimated that 75–80% of the marchers were black and the rest were white and other minorities. This ratio was far higher than expected.
The other surprising factor about the Washington march is that there was no violence.
This is particularly surprising considering there were around 250,000 people present on the day. The entire march was a worthy testament to the Civil rights movement’s recent ‘non-violent’ approach.
The march was thought up by by A. Philip Randolph, and sponsored by five of the largest civil rights organizations in the United States.
Planning for the event was complicated by differences among members. March organizers themselves disagreed over the purpose of the march. The NAACP and Urban League saw it as a gesture of support for a civil rights bill that had been introduced by the Kennedy Administration. Randolph, King, and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) saw it as a way of raising both civil rights and economic issues to national attention beyond the Kennedy bill. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) saw it as a way of challenging and condemning the Kennedy administration's inaction and lack of support for civil rights for African Americans.[5]
Politically, the march was organized by a coalition of organizations and their leaders including CORE, SNCC, SCLC and the NAACP.

The march was not universally supported among civil rights activists. Some were concerned that it might turn violent, which could undermine pending legislation and damage the international image of the movement. The march was condemned by Malcolm X imparticularly.
The march was not universally supported...
On August 28, more than 2,000 buses, 21 special trains, 10 chartered airliners, and uncounted cars migrated to Washington. Publicly open planes, trains, and buses were also filled to capacity.[5]
The march began at the Washington Monument and ended at the Lincoln Memorial with a program of music and speakers. The march failed to start on time because its leaders were meeting with members of Congress. To the leaders' surprise, the assembled group began to march from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial without them. The entire marchwas a far larger success than first anticipated.
The March
The Boycott
On the night of Rosa Parks' arrest,
1st December 1955
, Jo Ann Robinson distributed a flier telling the black community to stay off the buses. In the morning a church meeting headed by the newly elected president of the MIA,
Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. (MLK)
They proposed a citywide boycott of public transit in demand of a fixed dividing line for the segregated sections of the buses.
The one day boycott on the 5th December was a success. Few blacks went on the buses and MLK said " a miracle had taken place". The organisers of the boycott met up on the night of the one day boycott to discuss whether ot not to continue with the boycott. Lots of the ministers left as they disagreed with the others but those who stayed at the meeting decided to vote, and after E.D. Nixon gave a powerful speech the decision was unanimous, the boycott would continue.
The black people started setting up private taxi service for all the boycotters to enable them to get around; anyone with a car or black taxi drivers would transport people around. This proved successful but people in Montgomery would do anything to try and stop them, ppolice would arrest drivers for minor traffic offenses and they introduced a minimum taxi fare.
The MIA met with officials to try and resolve the boycott and persuade them to agree to there prposal. But they drew to no conclusions. The anger organisers then decided to push for full desegregation on the buses,it would be a long and hard fight.
Pressure increaed over time and white's even firebombed MLK's home. Also Montgomery was suffering; the number of blacks shopping in the town decreased and most obviously the bus services were losing a tremendous amount of money. Finally on
June 4th 1956
hte federal district court ruled segregation on Alabama buses unconstitutional. However, an appeal prolonged segregation until the supreme court upheld the ruling and buses were desegregated on November 13th. The boycott officially ended on
20th December 1956
and had lasted 381 days.
The Canadian Government reported Soviet spies were working in Canada
Secret Government documents were found in the hands of a small magazine
- increased the fear of spying
The start of the Red Scare
Group
Group
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
copy paste branches if you need more....
June 17 - Five men, one of whom says he used to work for the CIA, are arrested at 2:30 a.m. trying to bug the offices of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate hotel and office complex
October 10 - FBI agents establish that the Watergate break-in stems from a massive campaign of political spying and sabotage conducted on behalf of the Nixon reelection effort
November 7 - Nixon is reelected in one of the largest landslides in American political history, taking more than 60 percent of the vote and crushing the Democratic nominee, Sen. George McGovern of South Dakota
January 30 - Former Nixon aides G. Gordon Liddy and James W. McCord Jr. are convicted of conspiracy, burglary and wiretapping in the Watergate incident. Five other men plead guilty, but mysteries remain
April 30 - Nixon's top White House staffers, H.R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, and Attorney General Richard Kleindienst resign over the scandal. White House counsel John Dean is fired
May 18 - The Senate Watergate Committee begins its nationally televised hearings. Attorney General-designate Elliot Richardson taps former solicitor general Archibald Cox as the Justice Department's special prosecutor for Watergate
June 3 - John Dean has told Watergate investigators that he discussed the Watergate cover-up with President Nixon at least 35 times
July 13 - Alexander Butterfield, former presidential appointments secretary, reveals in congressional testimony that since 1971 Nixon had recorded all conversations and telephone calls in his offices
July 23 - Nixon refuses to turn over the presidential tape recordings to the Senate Watergate Committee or the special prosecutor
October 20 - Saturday Night Massacre: Nixon fires Archibald Cox and abolishes the office of the special prosecutor. Attorney General Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William D. Ruckelshaus resign. Pressure for impeachment mounts in Congress
December 7 - The White House can't explain an 18 ½-minute gap in one of the subpoenaed tapes. Chief of Staff Alexander Haig says one theory is that "some sinister force" erased the segment
April 30 - The White House releases more than 1,200 pages of edited transcripts of the Nixon tapes to the House Judiciary Committee, but the committee insists that the tapes themselves must be turned over
July 24 - The Supreme Court rules unanimously that Nixon must turn over the tape recordings of 64 White House conversations, rejecting the president's claims of executive privilege
July 27 - House Judiciary Committee passes the first of three articles of impeachment, charging obstruction of justice
August 8 - Richard Nixon becomes the first U.S. president to resign. Vice President Gerald R. Ford assumes the country's highest office. He will later pardon Nixon of all charges related to the Watergate case
Malcolm-X has come to symbolize power, solidarity and self-empowerment, within the Black community.
Forty years after his death, the righteous influence of Malcolm X is still motivating and influencing individuals all around the world to fight for their human rights.
He derided the civil-rights movement and rejected both integration and racial equality, calling instead for black separatism, black pride, and black self-dependence. Because he advocated the use of violence (for self-protection) and appeared to many to be a fanatic, his leadership was rejected by most civil-rights leaders, who emphasized nonviolent resistance to racial injustice.
Malcolm's success had by this time aroused jealousy within the Black Muslim hierarchy, and, in response to his comments on the Kennedy assassination, Elijah Muhammad suspended Malcolm from the movement. In March 1964 Malcolm X left the Nation of Islam and announced the formation of his own religious organization. As a result of a pilgrimage he took to Mecca in April 1964, he modified his views of black separatism, declaring that he no longer believed whites to be innately evil and acknowledging his vision of the possibility of world brotherhood. In October 1964 he reaffirmed his conversion to orthodox Islam.
At the height of fears in 1950, Mccarthy addressed a republican meeting, saying he had a list of 205 communists, working in the State department. A senate committee was set up to investigate the accusations made by Mccarthy, and it was decided that he was a ‘Fraud and a hoax’. The committee chairman, Senator Tydings, was branded a communist by Mccarthy. People were now in fear of speaking out against Mccarty, for fear of being branded a commuinist.
This fear set up a ‘Scatter Gun Approach’, anyone that accused Mccarty was accused of being communist. He was made Chairman of the Government Committee on Operations of the Senate and this allowed him to investigate stae bodies and interview hundreds on political beliefs. He rarely produced any, if not no evidence backing up the accusations made, but he still won massive support across the USA, and he contributed to the republicans winning the presidential vote.
Growth of McCarthy's Influence
Why did He get Support?
McCarthy even attacked his own Republican party. Eisenhower had done little to challenge him and McCarthy thought he could attack anyone without consequence. He objected to Eisenhower’s choice of ambassador to the USSR, but he was overruled. McCarthy began to cast doubts over the US army. The investigations were televised from April to June 1954, and the US public saw for the first time, the true nature of the man, and that he never produced any evidence supporting his accusations. They saw that he bullied in his questionings. The claims against the army were seem to be unfounded and McCarthy now faced challenges.
Why Did McCarthyism Fade?
McCarthy's Fall
Dec 1954, McCarthy was publically reprimed by the senate for:
Contempt of a Senate elections committee
Abuse of certain Senators
Insults to the Senate during the very hearings which condemned him.
The vote was 67-22 in favour of censuring him. He then lost the Chairmanship and this signalled the end of his power. He died in 1957.
E.D Nixon's Speech:
"What's the matter with you people? Here you have been living off the sweat of these washerwomen all these years and you have never done anything for them. Now you have a chance to pay them back, and you're too damn scared to stand on your feet and be counted! The time has come when you men is going to have to learn to be grown men or scared boys."
Consequences
It was one of the first major victories for the blacks and a big step forward in equality for blacks.
It also brought MLK forward into the spotlight and gave him national media and attenion that would become so important for him as a leader in the civil rights movement. MLK also had the chance to demonstrate his endless abilities as a leader for the black people. The success of the boycott also showed to the government and the white people the ability and power the blacks had in America. They could come together as a community and, if the determination was there, they could acheive a lot.
A meeting led by MLK about the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Women's Demands
Develoment during 1960s
Development during 1970s
Post WW2
Success?
Women were no longer satisfied with staying at home and campaigned against unfair treatment
Discrimination was evident- women’s wages and overt sexism
Demanded right to control fertility
The birth control pill became readily available
JFK appointed Eleanor Roosevelt to lead Commission on ‘Status of Women’
In 1963, Equal Pay Act. Men and Women to be paid the same for same jobs
1964- Civil Rights Act- Same rights regardless of gender or race
1966- Betty Frieden, author of the controversial Feminine Mystique, founded National Organisation Women
Development duting the 70s
1972- Educational Amendment Act- removing forms of discrimination based on gender in all areas eg textbooks
1976- Women admitted to elite academies for Army and Naval Officers

During WW2, women given more responsibility in society
New Jobs and Opportunities
Post WW2- Men simply expected women to return to their ‘traditional’ roles
Women gradually became more aware of their rights
Society became more aware of discrimination
Women’s pay gradually improved
However, despite progress, all these issues still exist today
Part of the wider struggle
The 1960s saw the growth of the protest movements
People protested against the established order
People protested against ‘established roles’
Women’s movement was clearly a part of this
Key Events
May 21: 1500 people met in a church in support of the Freedom Riders. People had been badly injured the previous day, and some ambulances had refused to take the injured black riders to hospital. Although there had been support from neither the Alabama police.... (continued)
Trailer from a film made about the Freedom Rides
Overview of the whole Freedom Ride movement
(continued) ....nor from federal sources, Robert Kennedy ordered 600 Federal Marshalls to go to Alabama and protect the people in the church. A mob, 3,000 strong, of white people started to gather around the church, throwing bricks at the windows and setting off tear gas canisters, gassing the people inside. The Marshalls were outnumbered, 5 to 1, and at about 2 am in the morning the Alabama National Guard appeared. This was because, when President Kennedy had found out that the police in Alabama had ignored the fact that 3,000 people were terrorising the black people in the church, he threatened to send federal troops into Alabama, and the Governor of Alabama had quickly responded.
Consequences
May 29: Robert Kennedy, under pressure from Martin Luther King and other civil rights leaders, sent a petition to the ICC (the Interstate Commerce Commission), asking that the Commission would comply with the ruling made in 1955, due to the Montgomery Bus Boycott, also in Alabama, which changed State Law with reference to segregation on transport.
November 1: New policies against segregation were put into effect. These policies allowed passengers to sit wherever they wanted to, no matter what colour they were, on interstate buses and trains. Signs with "Colored" and "White" on them, segregating waiting rooms and fountains for black people from their counterparts for white people, were taken down. Also, a key step forward was the fact that people were now served at counters regardless of whether they were black or white.
Unlike Albany poor planning on the part of the police led to full jails and these were only the adults
The Marches publicised Luther King as the leader of the Movement as a whole wheras in reality he was only part of it. This was exemplified at Washington where the "I have a dream" speech is the only speech remembered
The police chief "Bull" Connor did not have any tolerence of the protestors and ordered dogs and hoses to be used on the protestors. This was just what they wanted as there was no better way to advertise the movement. The picture of the black man being attacked by a dog spread all over the world's media.

In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, thus abolishing slavery in the United States. However, over a hundred years later, black African-Americans throughout the US were still not free from the prejudice and discrimination inflicted on them by whites, who believed that the Negros were ‘inferior’ to them purely due to the colour of their skin.
The Plessey vs. Ferguson case of 1896 ended in a controversial ruling that facilities for black and white Americans could be ‘separate but equal’; meaning that segregation in the States was legal and could continue.
However, in the late 1950s, when attention was again drawn to America’s domestic events following WWII and the Cold War, the facilities were far from ‘equal’, with blacks having to give up their seats to whites on buses and lunch parlours being segregated to the extent that blacks were forced to beg at the back door while white customers ate at the comfortable front counters.
In 1954, it was ruled that segregated facilities in schools were unconstitutional following the Oliver Brown vs. Topeka Board case. Bus Boycotts began in Montgomery in 1955 and Martin Luther King was first recognised in response to these in 1956. In 1957, Eisenhower, as President, protected nine students attempting to enrol at Little Rock High School and sit-ins started in 1960.
Later in 1960, John F. Kennedy was voted in as President of the US and began to support blacks throughout America. In 1961 James Meredith won his battle to enrol at ‘Ole Miss’ with the President’s help. Kennedy began to draw up plans for a Civil Rights Act which would give blacks and whites equal rights in the United States.
During the early 1960s, Martin Luther King’s popularity rose rapidly through his inspiring speeches and methods of non-violent protest. This came to its climax in 1963 at the March on Washington, where King gave his ‘I have a Dream’ speech to over 250,000 African–Americans at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington. To this day the speech is one of the most inspirational of all time.
Following this, pressure mounted on Kennedy and the Federal government to pass the Civil Rights Act. However, later that year, the President was shot dead in Texas while riding in an open-topped car in Dallas. He was succeeded by Lyndon B. Johnson.












In early 1964, the new President, Johnson, continued what Kennedy had begun as he got closer and closer to signing the Civil Rights bill. His support from the black population began to grow and by the middle of the year a wave of public sympathy passed through America. On July 2nd 1964, the Civil Rights Act was signed by Johnson, thus ending years of discrimination and segregation against black African-Americans in the US.
The full title of the bill was as follows:
‘An act to enforce the constitutional right to vote, to confer jurisdiction upon the district courts of the United States of America to provide relief against discrimination in public accommodations, to authorize the Attorney General to institute suits to protect constitutional rights in public facilities and public education, to extend the Commission on Civil Rights, to prevent discrimination in federally assisted programs, to establish a Commission on Equal Employment Opportunity, and for other purposes.’











The signing of the bill was a huge success for all blacks in America, but despite the new equality now in force throughout America, much of the white population still regarded the blacks as they had always done. Violence broke out on the streets, and in areas where whites felt strongly against blacks, it was dangerous for the latter to go outside alone. Blacks had won rights on paper, but the whites' attitude had not changed overnight.
However, the ones most opposed to blacks were older people who had grown up with them as slaves and been superior to them for their whole life. The younger part of the population, especially teenagers and young men, realised that the way blacks were treated was not fair, and many ended up fighting for them, both before and after the Civil Rights Act was passed.
Causes
Event
Consequences
Full transcript