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Biomechanics of a Soccer Kick

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Ryan Walters

on 16 January 2014

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Transcript of Biomechanics of a Soccer Kick

Questions?
Strictly a
foot-based sport
, player's feet are primarily used.
Player can use any part of his/her body other than hands (with exception of throw-ins and the goalie).
Use to bring the ball up the field, pass to other players, and/or shoot on the net.

A Successful soccer kick requires:
Balance
Power
Accuracy

Planes of Movement & Axis of Rotation
Biomechanical Principles
1. Stability
- low center of mass, strong base of support, straight line of gravity, mass
overall mass of player contribute to the player's overall stability.
2. Maximum effort
- player uses all joints that contributes to task's objective
getting the ball from point A to point B
3. Maximum velocity
- player must use all joints, largest to smallest, for max. velocity
Ankle to knee to hip to shoulder to elbow to wrist to fingers.
4. Linear motion
- the greater the applied impulse, the greater the increase in velocity
The ball will have more velocity
5. Linear motion
- the movement occurs in the opposite direction of the applied force
As the player pushes his feet down into the ground, the player ends up moving up and forward because for every action there is an opposite reaction
As the ball is kicked it pushes off of the player's foot and goes in the opposite direction.
6. Angular motion
- produced by torque, application of a force acting at a distance from an axis.
Torque at the swing of the extremities (arms and legs)
7. Angular motion
- angular motion is constant when an athlete or object is free in the air.
Angular motion of ball is constant until gravity and wind bring the ball back to the ground
Player is airborne as he runs until gravity brings player back to ground
Phase 1-Preliminary
Start in athletic stance
Head should be facing target (Point B)
Toes of feet should be faced towards the target (Point B)
Starting at a 45 degree angle from the ball causes the greatest ball velocity peak.
Phase ends when the player starts to run up to the ball
Biomechanics of a Soccer Kick
Major Joints Used
Knee extensor (hinge joint)
Ankle flexor (ellipsoid joint)
Hip flexor (ball and socket joint)
Major Muscles Used
Vastus lateralis
Rectus femoris
Vastus medialis
Vastus intermedius
Popliteus
Fibularis brevis
Fibularis longus
Extensor digitorum longus
Tibialis posterior
Soleus
Gastrocnemius
Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus
Biceps femoris
Gluteus maximus
Gluteus medius
Gluteus minimus
Sternocliedomastoid
Joints Involved
Ankle (ellipsoids joint)
Knee (hings joint)
Hip (ball and socket)
Shoulder (ball and socket)
Elbow (hinge joint)
Planes and Axes Involved
Sagittal plane
Horizontal axis
Basic Information
(Exercise Science, 71)
Quadriceps group
Hamstrings Group
Gluteus Group
Tensor fasciae latae
Sartorius
Iliacus
Psoas major
Adductor longus
Adductor magnus
Adductor brevis
Pectineus
Gracilis
Biceps branchii
Triceps branchii
Deltoid
Trapezius
Latissimus dori
Rectus abdominis
External Oblique
Pectoralis major
Teres major
(Exercise Science, 46-63)
(Exercise Science, 71)
Main motions lay on the sagittal plane with the horizontal axis
Sagittal plane, frontal plane, transverse plane, oblique plane.
Longitudinal axes and horizontal axes are used.
Smaller parts of the skill lay on the frontal plane, where the anterior-posterior and longitudinal axes are used (found in the arms).
Exercise Science, 3)
(Mr.Scott's Notes, Nov 12, 2013)
Phase 3- Force Production
Starts as your right foot swings forward
Player should focus on the ball and where to hit it (depending on where Point B is). If the player wants the ball to go in the top right corner of the net, the player should kick the ball below the center of the ball.
Left arm should point in the kicking direction to counteract the rotating body for balance.
Right hip should start to internally rotate by the time his leg comes into contact with the ball.
Thigh swung forward and downward with internal rotation of entire leg
Knee of right leg should be above the ball for maximum force and velocity by the end of this phase.
Phase ends when player kicks the ball
Joints Involved
Ankle (ellipsoid joint)
Knee (hinge joint)
Hip (ball and socket)
Shoulder (ball and socket)
Elbow (hinge joint)
Planes and Axes Involved
Sagittal plane
Frontal plane
Transverse plane
Oblique plane
Longitudinal axis
Horizontal axis
Oblique axis
Phase 5- Follow Through
Phase starts once that ball becomes a free-moving object
Player's limbs continue on with the swinging movement to prevent injury
Player's body protects itself from injury by gradually slowing down instead of coming to a fast stop since it's hard on the joints
Right leg continues through the motion and passes over median plane, slowing until it stops
Hips return to their anatomical position
Arms adduct and return to anatomical position
Phase ends when player is back into athletic stance
Joints Involved
Ankle (ellipsoid joint)
Knee (hinge joint)
Hip (ball and socket)
Shoulder (ball and socket)
Elbow (hinge joint)
Planes and Axes Involved
Sagittal plane
Frontal plane
Transverse plane
Oblique plane
Longitudinal axis
Horizontal axis
Oblique axis
Phase 4- Critical Instant
Phase starts when the foot comes into contact with the ball and ends when the ball is is a free-moving object.
Phase usually lasts 10 milliseconds
Player's foot should come into contact with ball with as much surface area as possible for better accuracy
Player's left arm should be fully internally rotated while left arm externally rotated, causing the trunk to twist
Maintain a straight posture. Tremendous leaning causes decrease in power applied to the ball
Joints Involved
Ankle (ellipsoid joint)
Knee (hinge joint)
Hip (ball and socket)
Shoulder (ball and socket)
Elbow (hinge joint)
Joints and Axes Involved
Sagittal plane
Frontal plane
Transverse plane
Oblique plane
Longitudinal axis
Horizontal axis
Oblique axis
Phase 2- Backswing
The phase starts when the player runs towards the ball
As player runs:
the feet plantar flex and dorsiflex
quadriceps and hamstrings extend and flex
trunk internally and externally rotate
arms flex and extend
Left foot should land about 10 centimeters away from ball (impurities in direction and loss of velocity if this isn't followed)
Arms are usually abducted for balance
Right foot is pulled back to the butt. The right foot should be plantar flexed for increase in velocity.
Torso parallel to point B
Phase ends when right foot is fully extended backwards with the left foot supporting the body's weight.
Joints Involved
Ankle (ellipsoid joint)
Knee (hinge joint)
Hip (ball and socket joint)
Shoulder (ball and socket joint)
Elbow (hinge joint)
Planes and Axes Involved
Sagittal plane
Horizontal axes
Laws of Motion
1. Law of Inertia
- every object in a state of motion remains in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.
Ball tends to stay in motion once kicked until gravity and wind bring the ball to the ground.
As the player runs, he applies enough force into the ground to overcome his own weight and gravity until gravity overcomes it.
2. Law of Acceleration
- a force applied to a body causes an acceleration of that body of a magnitude proportional to the force, in the direction of the force, and inversely proportional to the body's mass.
Ball being kicked
Gravity is a force that pushes the body forward, known as gravitational torque.
Force applied by the muscles. Force overcomes player's weight and gravity.
3. Law of Motion
- for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
As player pushes feet into the ground, the ground pushes back on player's foot. As a reaction and the player's foot comes back up.
As player's foot kicks the ball, the ball pushes on the foot with equal force.
(Mr. Scott's notes, Nov 11, 2013)
Phases of Movement
(Exercise Science, 71)
(Exercise Science, 3)
(slideshare.net), jssm.org), (Mr. Scott, Nov 12, 2013), (sportsinjrybulletin.com)
(Exercise Science, 71)
(Exercise Science, 3)
(sportsinjurybulletin.com), (marginsportsmedicine.weebly.com), (slideshare.net), (Exercise Science, 5), Mr. Scott, Nov 13, 2013)
(Exercise Science, 71)
(Exercise Science, 3)
(sportsinjurybulletin.com), (Mr. Scott, Nov 15, 2013), (completesoccerguide.com), slideshare.net).
(Exercise Science, 71)
(Exercise Science, 3)
(slideshare.net), (Chris Murray,Soccer Game Tips: How to Fix Your Soccer Shot), (completesoccerguide.com)
(Exercise Science, 71)
(Exercise Science, 3)
(sportsinjurybulletin.com), (slideshare.net)
(wikihow.com), (completesoccerguide.com)
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