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Individual Interaction

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by

Sarah Tracy

on 6 October 2016

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Transcript of Individual Interaction

Personal Relationships
-People experience different types of love and relationships throughout their lives.

-Early patterns of parent child interaction influences later expectations about relationships in adulthood.

ex. if infants first relationship with caregiver is loving and consistent, the child will develop trust in the ability of other people to meet his or her needs.
--> encourage the child to be receptive
Love Relationships
-Love means different things to different people and within different relationships.

-Hatfield developed two common types of love:
Passionate Love
- Intense and all consuming. Short term.
Companionate Love
- Includes friendship, liking someone, mutual trust, commitment, and intimacy.
Marriage
What is Social Psychology?
The study of how our thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and behaviors are influenced by our interaction with others.



Why do we need friends?
-Infancy: we depend on others to satisfy our basic needs. We learn that personal contact satisfies basic needs.

-Later in life being around human beings is a habit. We have developed needs for love, praise, respect, and affection. These needs, acquired by social learning can only be satisfied by others.
Main Idea
We depend on others to survive. We are attracted to certain people because of factors such as proximity, reward values, physical appearance, approval, similarity, and complementarity.
Social Psychology
Individual Interaction

Social Cognition
A sub field of psychology, studying how we perceive, store, and retrieve information about social interactions.
Anxiety and Companionship
- People get together to reduce their own uncertainty about themselves
Compare self to others

- Research supports the idea that the more uncertain someone is, the more likely they are to seek out other people.

- Friendship offers support in trying times.
Endogamy
- the tendency to marry someone who is from one's social group.
Research suggests that marriages will be more successful when we marry someone similar to us.
Homogamy-
our tendency to marry someone who has similar attributes, including physical attractiveness, age, and physique to our own.
Physical attractiveness is the best predictor of the likelihood that two randomly matched people will continue dating.
How We Choose Friends
Physical Proximity
The nearness between persons
Appearance
People feel better about themselves when they associate with people whom others consider as desirable.
Similarity
People tend to choose friends whose backgrounds, attitutes and interests are their own.
How We Choose Friends
Approval
We tend to like people who agree with and support us.
Complementarity
Attraction that develops between opposite types of people.




Reward Values
Stimulation Value
The ability of a person to interest you or expose you to ideas or interests
Utility Value
The ability of a person to help another achieve his or her goals
Ego-Support Value
The ability of a person to provide another person with sympathy, encouragement, and approval.
How We Choose Friends
Social Perception
We explain the behavior of others by making judgements about them. Our judgments are influenced by our perceptions of others.

Imagine you are meeting someone for the first time. How do you treat that person? Why? You first impression is usually based on that persons physical appearance.
First Impressions
These initial judgments may influence us more than later information does.

Primacy affect
is the tendency to form opinions of others based on first impressions.

Forming these perceptions help us to categorize people. The knowledge or set of assumptions that we develop is a
schema
.
Sometimes we develop schemas for an entire group of people, these assumptions are
stereotypes
.
Attribution Theory
At a traffic light, someone is honking behind you and gestures frantically for you to move.
What initially do you assume, feel, or experience?
You move your car to the side, allowing him to pass. As he stops next to you, he says "thanks! My wife in in labor! We're in a hurry!

If your like most of us, you feel foolish. When you first heard him, you may have attributed his behavior as personal characteristics. Once he thanked you and gave you his reason, your analysis immediately changed to credit his behavior
Attribution Theory
Attribution theory
is the collection of principles based on our explanations of the causes of events, other peoples behaviors, and our own behaviors.
Attribution Theory Key Terms
Fundamental attribution error
inclination to attribute others behavior to internal causes, but our own to external.
Actor-Observer bias
tendency to attribute ones own behavior to outside causes rather than personality trait.
Self Serving Bias
tendency to claim success is due to our efforts, while failure is due to circumstances beyond our control.
Relationships
-As children develop and form relationships with people outside their family, they apply what they have learned about relationships.

-Your parents influence the quality of your adult relationships with people outside the family.
-ex. they may provide you your first model of a marital relationship. Later influencing how you select a future mate.

Parent- Adolescent Conflict
-Adolescence may be a time of inner struggles.

-The adolescent thus needs parents who are sure of themselves, their identities, and their values. Serving as models and sources of stability.

-Each generation has a generational identity which means that different generations tend to think differently about things
Love Relationships
Rubin (1973) identified three major components of romantic love
-Need or Attachment
-Caring or the Desire to give
-Intimacy
Triangular Theory of Love
Sternberg (1989) contends that love is made up from three parts:
Intimacy
Passion
Commitment
The combinations of these parts account for why love is experienced in many different ways.
Marital Problems and Divorce
Healthy adjustment to marriage seems to depend on three factors:
-Whether the couples needs are compatible
-Whether each spouses image of self coincide with images they have of one another
-Agreement on roles.
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