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How the electromagnetic spectrum affects us in everyday life
Transcript of How the electromagnetic spectrum affects us in everyday life
The electromagnetic spectrum is range of all types of EM radiation. Radiation is energy that travels and spreads out as it goes – the visible light that comes from your lamp in your house and the radio waves that come from the radio station are two types of the electromagnetic spectrum. Light consists of electromagnetic waves, with each describing a different colour of light.
Radiant energy is energy from the EM specturum, these energies are used on a daily basis, but we dont seem to understand that.When you tune your radio, watch TV, send a text message, or pop popcorn in a microwave oven, you are using electromagnetic energy. You depend on this energy every hour of every day. Without it, the world you know could not exist.
Electromagnetic energy travels in waves and spans a broad spectrum from very long radio waves to very short gamma rays. The human eye can only detect only a small portion of this spectrum called visible light. A radio detects a different portion of the spectrum, and an x-ray machine uses yet another portion.
1)Is a whistle blowing part of the EM specturum
How the electromagnetic spectrum affects us in everyday life
MICROWAVE: Microwave radiation will cook your popcorn in just a few minutes. Astronomers use it to learn about the structure of nearby galaxies
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Visible Light: the light that your eyes detect. Fireflies and light bulbs, emit visible light
RADIO: Your radio captures radio waves emitted by radio stations, bringing your favorite tunes. Radio waves are also emitted by stars and gases.
The types of Radiation
INFARED: Night vision goggles pick up infrared light emitted from our body. In space, infrared helps us map out the dust
Ultraviolet: Ultraviolet radiation is emitted by the Sun and are the reason skin tans and burns. "Hot" objects in space emit UV radiation as well.
X-ray: A dentist uses X-rays to image your teeth, and airport security uses them to see through your bag. Hot gases in the Universe also emit X-rays
Gamma ray: Doctors use gamma-ray imaging to see inside your body. The biggest gamma-ray generator of all is the Universe.
Radio waves has the longest wavelenth in the Electromagnetic specturum. They range from a length of a football, to our entire planet.
So what is the electromagnetic specturum? It is Radiation, and radiation is a form of energy transport consisting of electromagnetic waves traveling at the speed of light.
Simply speaking. Radiation is a form of transforming heat, and heat gives off light. For ex, An incandescent light bulb. It gives about 15 % light and 85% heat, but we still see it, This is becasue te hotter the object gets the more visble it gets.
Radio telescopes, these telescopes look toward the heavens, stars, galaxies, comets and much more. To add Radio telescopes help astronomers to learn about the composition structure and motion of celestial objects.
Microwaves are basically extremely high frequency radio waves, and are made by various types of transmitter.
Their wavelength is usually a couple of centimetres.
Microwaves cause water and fat molecules to vibrate, which makes the substances hot.
That is why a microwave is called a microwave because it uses mirowaves to cook the food
MOBILE PHONES: Use microwaves. This helps in phones having smaller antenna, which does not make the phone really big, but there need to be more transmitters.
ACTIVE REMOTE SENSING
These are types of RADAR technology , becayuse it actively sends microwave pulses and senses the energy reflected back. Doppler Radar is a perfect example, because uses microwaves to give a image of weathering forecast.
anging, This is a object detecting system. It uses radio waves to determine rangen, velocity, angle of objects. It helps in detecting spacecrafts ships etc. It also helps in weather formations.
Infrared radiation lies between the visible and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Infrared waves have wavelengths longer than visible and shorter than microwaves, and have frequencies which are lower than visible and higher than microwaves.
We often refer to infrared radiation as being heat (or thermal energy) .
Heat is the energy that an object has because of the motion of its molecules.
Infared radiation is like heat, we are able to sense it, we also give it off, like many other objects. This is also why some objects when get hotter emit visible light. Thermal imaging is like night vision googlies which allow us to see infrared radiation.
Infared to visible
Visible light is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye , visible light is made up of 7 colours.
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RED: 620-750 nm 400-484 Thz 1.65–2.00 eV
ORANGE: 590-620 nm 484-508 Thz 2-2.10 ev
YELLOW: 570-590nm 508–526 THz 2.10–2.17 eV
GREEN: 495-570 526–606 THz 2.17–2.50 eV
BLUE: 450-495 668–789 THz 2.50–2.75 eV
VIOLET: 380-450 606–668 THz 2.75–3.26 eV
WAVELENGTH FREQUENCY ENERGY
HOW DO WE SEE COLOUR
To understand how we see color, we will be using biology to help us understand.
When light hits an object , the light is either reflected or absorbed, and the wavelengths abosorbed o reflected depends on there properties.
For a ripe banana, wavelengths of about 570 to 580 nanometers bounce back. These are the wavelengths of yellow light
When the light is reflected into your eyes you have specialized cells in your eyes called cones, which are like photoreceptors, which detect the colour.
Everybody has different cones, but for most humans the colour the see the most is red.
Ultraviolet (UV) light has shorter wavelengths than visible light. UV light is not visible to the human eye, but can be detected by other insects
There are three forms of UV rays,
UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C. UV-C rays are the most harmful and are almost completely absorbed by our atmosphere. UV-B rays are the harmful rays that cause sunburn. Exposure to UV-B rays increases the risk of DNA and other cellular damage in living organisms. Fortunately, about 95 percent UV-B rays are absorbed by ozone in the Earth's atmosphere.
Suntan, is a reaction with the harmful rays of UV-B light. This releases a human mechanaism called melenin , which are produced by the cells in your skin called Melanocytes. Melanin absorbs Uv light and give it off as heat. As the body senses sun damage it send melanin to surronding cells, tries to stop it from retaning more damage. In this process the skin starts to darken. If over exopsure a sunburn can be resultant.
UV light is so strong it rips through DNA, in which the bonds trying to get back together a mutated cell may occur, which can turn out to be malignent.
X rays have much higher energy and shorter wavelengths, which means greater energy compared to UV light. X rays tend to be very small about 0.03-3 nm.
The discovery of X rays was by German scientist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen. With his discovery the roentgenology was formed, creating one of the biggest medical jumps of the 1800's.
Can you detect were the needle is
Gamma rays have the shortest wavelength, the greatest frequency and the greatest energy out of the entire EM specturum.
HOW CAN YOU DETECT THE NEEDLE?
WIlhelm rontgen discovered x rays by accident, he was doing an experiment with electron and a beam tude, the discovery that happened next is incredible.
X rays pass through nonmetallic objects, and objects that are not as dense easily. Objects that x ray cant pass but instead gets abosorbed are mettallic objects, that is why the needle is very easy to detect.
Gamma rays come from the hottest and most energetic objects
Gamma rays are also used for killing cancer cells, because of the high energy.
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Some objects can absorb UV rays, and immediately release it as Visible light, now this is were Fluoresent light bulbs come in play. When Electric charge passes through mercury atoms, it releases UV light which is then caught by the inner surface of the light and given off as Visible light, sounds simple but, has saved people alot of money
2)Is Heat part Of the EM specturum
3)What are photons
4) Out of the two light bulbs discussed, physically emit more infared radiation.
5) What is the compound that your body emits, to protect you from UV rays