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BIOLOGY

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Nuri Syahirah

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of BIOLOGY

BIOLOGY Chapter 7, Respiration BREATHING
MECHANISM 2)Fish
Gills
Gills is protected by the operculum and composed of filaments (large surface area) which are supported by gill arch. When a person is doing vigorous activities such as running, more energy is needed by the body to undertake the physical movements.

increases the metabolic rate;

the cells require more glucose and oxygen as more energy is given out in cellular respiration.

This results in an increase in the breathing rate and heart beat.

The increased breathing rate ensures that more oxygen is inhaled and the increase of the heart beats ensures that more blood is being circulated around the body with more oxygen being transported to the respiring body cells.

At the same time, the excess carbon dioxide is expelled to the lungs. PLANTS Saffa Syamimi
Nuri Syahirah
Nur Natasha RESPIRATION Respiration is an important living process that occurs in two main stages INTERNAL EXTERNAL mechanical process that maintains a continuous exchange of gases between the respiratory surfaces of an organism and environment cellular respiration, is the biochemical process in which energy is made available to all living cells The Respiratory System The Diffusion of the Gases Energy requirement in living process Contraction pf muscle Active transport Cell Division Transmission of nerve impulses Main subtrate of producing energy GLUCOSE is obtained from digestion of carbohydrates How is the chemical energy stored within glucose made available to living cells Cellular Respiration AEROBIC RESPIRATION ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION requires a continuous supply of oxygen which is obtained from the air during external respiration a process that produce energy stored in glucose without using oxygen AEROBIC RESPIRATION Carbon Dioxide and Water
are produced as WASTE PRODUCT Most of the energy realeased is used to synthesise

ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP) from

ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE (ADP) and

INORGANIC PHOSPHATE ATP acts as an instant source of energy which drives cellular processes ADP + phosphate + energy ATP ATP consists of phosphate bonds which can be easily broken down to release energy. ATP ADP + phosphate + energy energy released Under normal conditions, external respiration is able to supply the calls with oxygen at a rate that keeps pace with ATP demand. During periods of prolonged physical activity, the cells are forced to do work without oxygen supply ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION anaerobic in human muscles 7.2 The Respiratory Structures and Breathing Mechanisms 7.3 Gaseous Exchange across the respiratory surfaces and transport of gases in human 7.5 Importance of maintaining a healty respiratory system LUNG IS THE MOST IMPORTANT ORGANS IN OUR BODY
A smoker inhales smoke that contains toxic gases like Carbon Dioxide, carbon monoxide, nicotine and tar that could damage the LUNGS Good Lungs Bad Lungs inhaled cigaratte smokes that contain 4000 harmful chemicals include tar nicotine, carbon monoxide, acetone, benzene and formaldehyde 7.6 Respiration in Plants Energy Requirement in plant is lower than animal because plant do not move about like animals do The intake of oxygen by plants for respiration Most plants take in oxygen through leaves
stems
roots Gaseous exchange between plant cells and environment through diffusion, which is mainly called Stomata Lentricel found on stems and roots a pore surrounded by two guard cells are arranged loosely to allow the diffusion of gases connect the air spaces inside a leaf with the atmosphere Carbon Dioxide is produced during aerobic respiration Aerobic Anaerobic Carry out by plants throughout the day and night Can occur in for short period Example : During flood, plants can survive for several days completely submerged in water RESPIRATION AND
PHOTOSYNTHESIS The plant need to reach the Compensation Point Compensation point is the light intensity at which the rate of carbon dioxide production during respiration is equal during the photosynthesis the light increase the rate of respiration, so the rate of photosynthesis is faster than respiration the plant must now take in carbon dioxide and release excess oxygen the rate of photosynthesis must exceed the rate of respiration. this enables the rate of sugar production to exceed the rate of sugar consumption so the excess sugar can be used for growth and other vital living process in living things -The process of oxidation of molecules in the absence of oxygen.
-Glucose is not completely broken down. Not all the energy in glucose is released. Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cells. -During vigorous activity -Oxygen need to be transported fast enough to the muscle for rapid respiration. -Enable the release of sufficient energy - Increasing of breathing rate and heart rate - The supply of oxygen to the muscle is insufficient and the muscles have to carry out anaerobic respiration to release energy. -Glucose is broken down to form lactic acid and energy for muscle contraction. -Lactic acid accumulates in the muscles causing muscular cramp and fatigue. - The oxygen debt is the amount of oxygen needed to remove the lactic acid from the muscle cells. -Lactic acid + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy -Oxidation of lactic acid occurs mainly in the liver. -Some of the lactic acid is oxidized to produce energy. The remaining is converted to glucose then glycogen which is then stored in the muscle cells. anaerobic in Yeasts -Able to carry out both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

-Yeast secretes the enzyme zymase which hydrolyses glucose in the absence of oxygen to form ethanol, carbon dioxide and 2 ATP.

-The products of fermentation:

a)Carbon dioxide is used as raising agent in baking bread
b)Ethanol is used to produce wine and beer. Small aquatic organisms such as Amoeba does not require specialized respiratory system because respiration occurs across the plasma membrane. Adaptations of respiratory structures
Gaseous exchange takes place in the respiratory structures of human and other organism.

•Diffusion is the movement of the respiratory between the respiratory surface and the external environment. Cellular respiration depletes oxygen and increases carbon dioxide then cause the diffusion of oxygen into the cells and the diffusion of carbon dioxide out of the cells.

•Common characteristics of the respiratory structures
-Moist
-Thin
-Have a large surface area

•The respiratory structures must have those characteristics to ensure maximum contact with the source of oxygen.

•The larger the the size of an organism, the smaller the surface area per unit volume of the organism. 1)Insects
Tracheal systems
The circulatory system of insects is not involved in transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide since the cells are in direct contact with the respiratory surfaces. grasshopper The branches of trachea •Air enters spiracle then travels through the tracheoles and reaches the fluid-filled tips. Oxygen diffuses into the cells, while carbon dioxide diffuses from cell into the tracheoles.
•Large number of tracheoles provides large surface area for diffusion of gases.
•Air get in and out by the rhythmic movements of the abdominal muscles. •Thin membranes
•Rich of blood capillaries
•Surrounded by water
•Large surface area of filaments and lamellae
The countercurrent exchange mechanism maximizes oxygen transfer because the blood flows in the opposite direction of the water flows through the capillaries in the lamellae 3)Amphibians
Skin and lungs Skin
Thin
Highly permeable to respiratory gases
Moist
Large number of blood capillaries Lungs
A pair of thin-walled sacs connect to mouth
Thin and moist membranes
Covered by a network of capillaries 4)Humans Lungs
Millions of alveoli
Huge surface area
Covered by a dense network of blood capillaries
Have one cell thick of alveoli Air enters lungs through
Trachea – bronchi – bronchioles – alveoli

Trachea is supported by cartilage to prevent it from collapse during inhalation. Features of alveoli
Large in number of alveoli in the lungs
Walls are made up of a single layer of cell
Walls secrete a thin lining of moisture
Surrounded by a network of blood capillaries The End Diffusion of a gas depends on differences is partial pressure between two region Carbon dioxide is released by respiring cells and can be transported in 3 ways 7% of the carbon dioxide is transported as dissolved carbon dioxide in the blood plasma 23% will combine with haemoglobin and is transported as carbaminohaemoglobin. 70% is transported in the blood in the form of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) carbon dioxide released by body cells diffuses into the blood plasma and then too red blood cells where it reacts with water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) red blood cells contain the enzyme carbonic anhydrase which catalyse the reaction carbonic acid then dissociates to form hydrogen ions (H+) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3) the bicabonate ions diffuse from red blood cells into blood plasma the bicarbonate ions diffuse into blood plasma and red blood cells to form carbonic acid again. breakdown to carbon dioxide and water before diffusing out of blood capillaries into the alveoli the exchange of respiratory gases between the blood and body cells The partial pressure in the blood capillaries is higher than the partial pressure of oxygen in the body cells. As a result, oxygen is forced out of the blood capillaries into the body cells. In addition, the low partial pressure in oxygen in the body cells results in the low affinity of haemoglobin to oxygen in the cells. This condition makes it more favourable for the oxygen to be released and diffuse into the body cells. At the same time, the body cells contain a high concentration of carbon dioxide due to respiration at the cells. Hence, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the cells is higher than the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood capillaries surrounding them. The carbon dioxide is forced to diffuse out of the body cells into the blood capillaries. 7.4 The regulatory Mechanism in Respiration The regulation of oxygen and carbon dioxide contents in the body Human respiration in different situations Vigorous activities, such as running, result in more glucose being oxidised. This allows the release of more energy required for rapid muscle contractions. The rate of respiration at the bodily cells increases. Vigorous activity More nerve impulses are sent to the intercostal muscles and diaphragm to increase the rate of breathing. The heart beats also increase to allow more oxygen to be circulated and more carbon dioxide to be exhaled by the lungs.
When a person is at rest or sleeping, the concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide are at normal levels and the cells are maintained to function normally. The respiration rate is at normal rates ranging from 14-20 times a minute while the rate of the the heart beats in this situation is at 60-72 times a minutes REST FEAR when a person is in fear, the breathing and the hearbeats getting faster which increase the rate of respiration. Therefore, more energy is needed to cope during moment of distress. the regulatory mechanism of oxygen and carbon dioxide contents in the body Breathing centre in the medulla oblongata The control centre consists of a special group of cells called central chemoreceptors. The central chemoreceptors in the centre are triggered when there are changes in the oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the body.

During vigorous activities, the rate of respiration in the body cells increases and this in turn increases the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood. The high concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood lowers the pH value of the blood. The drop in the pH value is detected by the central and peripheral chemoreceptors. We shall look at how both chemoreceptors regulate the rhythm of breathing
The drop in the pH value of the blood and tissue fluid bathing the brain stimulates the central chemoreceptors to emit nerve impulses to the respiratory centre. The respiratory centre sends nerve impulses to the intercostal muscles and the muscles of the diaphragm. The intercostal muscles and the diaphragm muscles contract rapidly, causing the rate of breathing and heart beats to increase.

The increases in the rate of breathing and the heart beats enable more oxygen to be supplied all over the body and more carbon dioxide to be produced. This will continue until the level of the pH returns to normal. Besides the central chemoreceptors, periphery chemoreceptors also respond to changes of oxygen in the body. A decrease in the concentration of oxygen to a very low value, such as at high altitudes where the atmospheric oxygen value is low, will stimulate the periphery receptors to emit nerve impulses. The nerve impulses are then sent to the breathing centre at the medulla oblongata.

The breathing centre responds by sending nerve impulses to the respiratory muscles. Action of the muscles becomes more rapid and will increase the rate of breathing and ventilation. Nerve impulses are also sent to the heart causing the rate of the heart beats to increase. This causes more oxygen and glucose to be carried faster to the muscles for rapid cell respiration and releases energy for vigorous muscle activities. The increased rate of blood circulation also helps to remove carbon dioxide formed during cell respiration more rapidly.
regulation of oxygen
Regulation of oxygen content in blood by peripheral chemoreceptors made by
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