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Copy of France
Transcript of Copy of France
From Cornwall Council latest version 2011
Music and Dance
Traditional Cornish Music is Celtic, with similar sounds to the bagpipe.
As explained before Cornwall has a lot of history, it would be hard to write it all down! Cornwall Gov website provides a timeline of what they consider important history, but what we must not forget is more recent events that have made Cornwall ever so popular.
- Cornwall took part in the London Olympics torch relay starting at Lands End traveling through to the Plymouth Hoe, all on foot and the runners stopped to take pictures; here I am with a friend and a runner!
Important Dates in History
Cornwall is a very beautiful county and very picturesque, as there it huge amounts of history, there are thousands of architectural sites to admire. It would be too many to describe them all, so I will start with my town, Lostwithiel. The name Lostwithiel was documented in the charter of 1189. It is believed to come from the Old Cornish 'Lostgwydeyel' meaning 'the place at the tail of the forest'.
Cornwall is the most southerly point in Great Britain, it is opposite the peninsula of Brittany, France. It forms part of the 'Atlantic Arc' of six Celtic countries - Brittany, Cornwall, Wales, Isle of Man, Ireland & Scotland. Lands End is as far as you can go before hitting the water, on a clear day you can see over to the Isles of Scilly.
The River Tamar forms the border between Cornwall and Devon, it is 50 miles long starting in Bude running into the sea in Plymouth.
I am from Lostwithiel the middle of Cornwall, it used to be the Capital of Cornwall because of its stanary status, where money used to be minted. The town is full of history, with 3 prisons, duchy palace and the River Fowey running through it.
Old Cornish Map
The Cornish Pasty
the most famous food in Cornwall.
Originated from the time of Henry III, around 1300 but it has really gained Cornish Identity in the last 200 years. But Cornwall had to fight! More recently fight a tax increase on the pasty!
Traditionally the pasty was made by the poorer families using just potatoes, swede and onion. It was a convinience food for the miners, as its shape made it portable, easy to eat and it insulated well.
A Cornish Pasty is traditionally crimped on the side, so the workers did not have to wash their hands to eat, and was a savory and sweet dish; with jam in one half. Now a pasty is made with skirt steak but you can also get cheese and bacon, chicken and I once made a chocolate and lemon curd one which was delicious (which won a trophy)!
The Cornish Pasty is important to every Cornish persons heritage and are eaten for breakfast, lunch and tea as they are so delicious!
A recipe: www.cornishpastyassociation.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/.../recipe.pdf
Saint Piran - Gool Peran
Said to be of Irish decent he is the Patron Saint of Cornwall,
famous for washing up on the shores at Perranporth. Legend has it he was thrown off a cliff with a milestone around his neck into survived stormy seaa and floated to Cornwall, through Newqyay. When he landed in the dunes, he built a Chapel which is now visited by thousands of people every year. Other legends say he discovered tin which the miners worshiped him for.
Saint Piran's Day is a holiday in Cornwall, falling on the 5th March. Cornish people are now voting to make it a bank holiday. Every year children and adults celebrate by recreating the story, holding the annual inter-Celtic festival of 'Lowender Peran' and march across the dunes to St Piran's cross which thousands of people attend, dressed in black, white and gold, and carrying the Cornish Flag.
Below: Cornish Flag and right picture of St Piran.
ONAN HAG OLL
The climate is mild due to the warming effects of the Gulf Stream. The moderating influence of the sea also means that Cornish winters are rarely severe and hot summer days are often cooled by gentle sea breezes.
Cornwall is major holiday destination, despite how much rain we get! But as most Cornwall is along the coast, the beaches are great in the summer and winter.
Below St Ives Beach and Newlyn Harbour.
Cornwall has its own unoffical national anthem sung at rugby matches and Gorseth Kernow celebrations for the last 75 years "Bro Goth Agan Tasow".
'Lamorna' is the most well known song in traditional cornish music, it is a song named after a village in west cornwall about a courtship between a man and woman who ends up his wife in the 1910.
Celidh's are a traditional form of dancing in Cornwall. The Celidh originated from Scotland but is a typical Celtic dance, bringing it to Cornwall.. During these dances there is always a caller who calls directions to the dancers, often a set of women and men. They are often performed at weddings or group parties.
As part of the many festivals in Cornwall the Flora Dance is an important tradition, held on Flora Day. Children will commonly perform this as it is instilled from school ages, 1000's of children will perform together on the streets.
Clothes in the 18th and 19th centuries were very different to clothes now but unlike today your clothes would define your profession for example women who worked in the mines wore 'Gooks' but they would be individual to the mine they worked in.
- Being Celtic, Cornish people have their own dress, tartan represents different parts of the culture. The Cornish National tartan is predominantly yellow, black, white and red. The national tartan of Kernow (Cornwall) is as follows: White on Black for St. Piran's Banner (The Patron Saint of Cornwall), Black and Gold were the colours of the ancient Cornish kings, Red is for the beak and legs of the Chough, the Cornish National bird, Blue is for the sea surrounding Cornwall.
Cornish Tartan shows your heritage and you will often see men wearing a tartan kilt at their weddings, the earliest reference being made to a kilt in 1903.
Skeleton of the Economy
If you are Cornish you are most definatley proud of your heritage, Cornwall is not the place to live if you do not want to know your neighbours!
To understand Cornwall you need to understand its history; many Cornish people would argue that Cornwall is or once was a seperate country within the United Kingdom, like Ireland or Scotland or Wales. Within history there have also been many references made about this and studies still continue about 'a neglected nation'.
It is well known Cornish people as late as the 16th century still possesed own styles of dress, their own folklore, their own naming-customs, their own agricultural practices and their own games and pastimes.
It is also very important to mention Cornish people remained entirely different from their English neighbours by speaking Cornish tongue.
For more information about 'a neglected nation' please read BBC History Article
As said above the Cornish language is similar to Welsh, but unlike Welsh only a small minority of Cornish people can and understand the language. Starting in 936 the language unfortunately died out as a spoken language in the 19th century, however in 1904 Henry Jenner wrote a Cornish language handbook, which revived the language. People today from all over the world are learning the language, including myself. The government want to introduce the language into primary schools, but at the moment there are 4 versions of the language and the Cornish Language Partnership are voting for a unified version.
Lostwithiel has a rich heritage. Founded by the Norman lords who built the original Restormel Castle, it was developed to become a major port for seagoing ships, exporting tin to Europe and the Mediterranean.
The Earl Of Cornwall was resposible for building the Great Hall, the bridge and the square church tower.
- Now the remains of the castle is a shell keep, dating back to the 13th century, it stands high above the river Fowey on a Norman mound, used by the Black Prince and finally seeing action during the Civil war of 1644.
- Originally built by the Earl of Cornwall's son, Richard as a Great Hall which contained a strong room for trade. Later the building was later used as a 'coinage' facility. More recently its been used as a Masionary Hall and the Duchy Palace is unique in Cornwall and is now an icon of Cornish culture and history. It is
probably the largest medieval secular building that was ever built in Cornwall and it is the largest medieval secular building to survive.
- Our medieval bridge has stood over the original crossing of the River Fowey since the 13th century, built by the Normans. Since the river has silted up 4 of the bridges original arches are buried under North street.
- Our own museum holds a lot of history; once being a Corn exchange and later the town Gaol. Inside you can see the very first fire engine and Joseph Burnett's, the towns first police officer's uniform (with the gunshot hole)!
I must add these are only a few of the towns treasures!
Good morning class! Good afternoon!
Myttin da klass! Dohajydh da!
Let’s call the register Is Jack here?
Gwren ni gelwel an rol Usi Jack omma?
Here, Miss/Sir Quiet please!
Omma, Mestresyk/ Syrra Taw mar pleg!
Very good! Lunchtime
Pur dha! Prys li
Play/break time Here’s your homework…
Prys gwari Ottomma agas obertre...
The Cornish Year
•St Piran's Day
•The May Horns
•Padstow 'Obby Oss
•Other May Celebrations
•Golowan & Midsummer
•Crying the Neck & Guldize
•Tom Bawcock's Eve
•Nadelik & Montol
•Feast days and fairs
We have already talked about St Pirans day, another major holiday in Cornwall is 'Obby Oss' day. This day is held in Padstow and It is not unusual to see 30,000 people crammed into the little town. Some say its roots are in pagan times, others that it's a rain maker, a fertility symbol, a deterrent to a possible landing by the French some centuries ago or even a welcome to summer. The day is whole heartedly celebrated by young and all with a huge parade of the fearsome Obby Oss through the streets.
All the small villages or towns in Cornwall hold their own Carnival weeks, including Lostwithiel which are fun for all. The week holds football, rounders matches, pram races, raft races, costume parades, duck race, charity fete, spot the stranger, concerts and carnival parade.
Pictures Below: Lostwithiel Brownies (and my nan!) in the Carnival Parade and Pram Race contestents.
Lostwithiel Town Mayor and Rotary President wearing the traditional Cornish Tartan Kilt.
Richard Trevithick -
is probably the most famous inventor from Cornwall, he was born in Tregajorran he grew up in the mining heartland. He went on to be an early pioneer of steam-powered road and rail transport. His most significant contribution was to the development of the first high-pressure steam engine, he also built the first full-scale working railway steam locomotive.
My favourite tale is the
'Beast of Bodmin Moor'
There have been sighting of a beast, much like a jaguar, that roams free among the moors. It is well known in the UK that it has been covered in the local newspaper.
Tintagel Castle is steeped in legend and mystery; it is reputed to be the birthplace of
, a legend which has endured through the years. The castle also has links to tales or Merlin;
The Mermaid of Zennor
is another legend that takes place in a small village Zennor, where many folks people have had sightings of the 'mermaid' in her human and natural form. The townsfolk had her image carved into a benchend and you may see her still in the village church of St.Senara,her hair flowing,mirror in one hand and comb in the other,cut into the ancient wood. upon the belt was the verse: 'This is the valiant Cornishman', they regarded and respected her as one of their own.
Cornish Wrestling 'Omdowl Kernewek'
- Unknown to many of people, wrestling is a common sport and activity in Cornwall, taking place at large scale events and charity affairs. Cornish Wrestling has been known to date back to the 17th century and the Association has been established for many centuries since. In Cornish style wrestling opponents will wear tough jackets enabling them to gain better grip on their opponent and the objective is to throw your opponent and make him land as flat as possible on his back. There would be 3 sticklers (referees) watching each match.
Cornish Hurling 'Hyrlîan'
- is another historic game that still takes place today, hurling the Silver Ball is an outdoor team game of Celtic origin played only in Cornwall. Hurling usually takes place during Obby Oss or Furry Day and annual matches are held at St Columb.
Cornwall's National Sport
An old Cornish saying;
"hyrlîan yw gen gwaré nyi"
"Hurling is our sport"
Cornwall is part of the South West of England which is one of nine official regions of England. It is the largest such region in area, covering 9,200 square miles and comprising Gloucestershire, Bristol, Wiltshire, Somerset, Dorset, Devon, Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly. Five million people live in South West England.
The region has a particularly strong cultural identity. Cornwall has its own language, Cornish, and the region is known for its rich folklore, including the legend of King Arthur and Glastonbury Tor, as well as its many centuries-old traditions and customs. Traditionally, the South West of England has been well-known for producing Cheddar cheese, which originated in the Somerset village of Cheddar, for Devon cream teas, crabs, Cornish pasties, and for cider.
The Cornish Railway
- has links to Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the Cornwall Railway linked Plymouth with Falmouth (Devon to Cornwall). The section from Plymouth to Truro was opened on 4 May 1859, and the remainder to Falmouth on 24 August 1863. Although the line had been designed by Brunel, this was after his death and the construction
John Couch Adams -
was born near Lanceston in 1819 to a farming family. He is best known for his work in astronomy and his discovery of the Planet Neptune.
Cornwall has been inhabited from the early Stone Age 20,000 years ago and the ancient Cornish were particularly productive when it came to building monuments. The countryside, particularly West Cornwall and Bodmin Moor, is littered with menhirs, stones circles, quoits, fougos, wells and forts. The majority of these sites date back to the Bronze Age and are thought to have played a part in burial rites. Others, particularly stone circles are believed to have been used for astronomy.
Perhaps the most easily identifiable of all Cornwall’s ancient monuments. consists of four stones; two straight upright pillars either side of a holed stone and a further fallen pillar close by
Possibly the oldest village street in England, Chysauster consists of the remains of eight stone dwellings. The courtyard houses are thought to have been home to members of the Dumonii tribe around 2,000 years ago. Originally the houses would have had thatched roofs but the condition of many of the remaining walls is quite impressive.
The largest and best preserved quoit in Cornwall, Trethevey is also known as the “giant’s house”. Dating back to the early Stone Age the quoit is a feat of engineering consisting of two internal chambers topped by a massive capstone.
A more up to date monument that is special to Cornwall is
. Truro is now the capital of Cornwall as it has the only Cathedral in Cornwall, The Diocese of Truro covers the whole of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly plus two parishes in Devon! Edward White Benson was the first Bishop of Truro (1877 - 1883). The Cathedral is originally built on top of the St Mary Parish Church. It is still in use today, very much so with services held, singing and visitors are always welcome.
Cornwall quite often has
from the Prince or Wales and Duchess of Cornwall; Charles and Camilla. Prince Charles is also the Duke of Cornwall and has a special interest in Cornwall, hence it being named the Duchy. He owns private land in Cornwall aptly named the Duchy EstateThe Duchy of Cornwall is a private estate which funds the public, charitable and private activities of The Prince of Wales and his family. The Duchy consists of around 53,154 hectares of land in 24 counties, mostly in the South West of England.
was created in 1337 by Edward III for his son and heir, Prince Edward, and its primary function was to provide him and future Princes of Wales with an income from its assets. A charter ruled that each future Duke of Cornwall would be the eldest surviving son of the Monarch and the heir to the throne. The current Duke of Cornwall, HRH The Prince of Wales, is actively involved in running the Duchy and his philosophy is to improve the estate and pass it on to future Dukes in a stronger and better condition.
The royal couple visit Lostwithiel; outside the Ducky Palace in July 2013
I hope you enjoyed learning about my culture and history and much as I love my Cornish Heritage
Kernow Bys Vykhen