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Revolutions in Thought: The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment

Introduction to the Philosophes

Anna Searcy

on 13 October 2015

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Transcript of Revolutions in Thought: The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment

Revolutions in Thought:
The Scientific Revolution
the Enlightenment

Philosophy defined

a : pursuit of wisdom
b : a search for a general understanding of values and reality by chiefly speculative rather than observational means
c : an analysis of the grounds of and concepts expressing fundamental beliefs
Greek roots
phil= love
The Scientific Revolution
The Enlightenment
A time often associated with great discoveries of first modern scientists
like Copernicus, Brahe and Kepler, Galileo, Newton
Key Outcomes and Legacies
What's Empiricism?
em·pir·i·cism noun \im-ˈpir-ə-ˌsi-zəm
a : the practice of relying on observation and experiment especially in the natural sciences
b : a tenet arrived at empirically
What's Scientific Method?
Empiricism and the Scientific Method

What was science in Europe like before this?
Pre-15th Century Scientific Influences in Europe were based primarily on....
Scholarly Writings of
Ancient Greece and Rome
Technological advances through
trade and commerce
Imposed Religious Doctrines
Key Figures and Advancements
Nicolaus Copernicus
Tycho Brahe and Johanes Kepler –
Galileo Galilei –
Francis Bacon –
Rene Descartes –
Isaac Newton –
By adapting scientific reasoning, Enlightenment intellectuals, or philosophes:
challenged traditional Christianity by opposing the teachings and dogma of the Catholic Church

contested the divine right of kings

inspired future democratic revolutions like the American and the French Revolution

advocated religious tolerance and equality before the law
believed humans were good yet perfectible

instigated radical developments in philosophy, art, and politics
Key Figures and Advancements

Adam Smith
Mary Wollstonecraft

Baron de Montesquieu
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet)

John Locke
Thomas Hobbes
The Salon
The salon was a cultural institution dating back to the first half of the 17th century in Paris that came forth as an extension of the institutionalized court where royal women of leadership entertained the city elite since the early 16th century.

1500's-late 1600's
He argued that the earth moved around the sun (heliocentrism) rather than vice versa (geocentrism, proposed by Ptolemy) and used mathematical approaches and observation to reach his conclusions.
Published his theories in
On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres
astronomer, lived from 1473 to 1543
Brahe created elaborate and detailed mathematical tables of astronomical observations; Kepler used that data to suggest the orbits of the planets were elliptical
Kepler was German mathematician and astronomer who lived from 1571 to 1630
Brahe was a Danish astronmer who lived from
1546 – 24 October 1601
First astronomer to use the telescope; used observations to support the Copernican system; argued that mathematical laws regulated the universe.
He was condemned by the Catholic Church and forced to take back his beliefs.
Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher who lived from 1564 to 1642
Argued that scientific thought must be supported by empirical evidence
English philosopher, scientist, lawyer, author, and practitioner of the scientific method and pioneer in the scientific revolution. Bacon has been called the father of empiricism. He lived from 1561-1626.
Descartes was the father of analytical geometry and argued that the world was governed by mathematical laws.
French philsopher who lived from
1596 to 1650
"Cogito ergo sum"
"Je pense, donc je suis"
"I think, therefore I am;" or I am thinking, therefore I exist or I do think, therefore I do exist."
Philosophies most famously published in Discourse on Method
Explained gravity through mathematics and developed a theoretical basis for physics
English physicist, mathematician, astronomer,and natural philosopher who lived from1643 to 1727
Newton's Second Law of Motion
ex: Ptolemy's
geocentric theories
Europe (though heavily influenced from
scientific knowledge from the Middle East,
Asia, and Mediterranean North Africa)
What are philosophes?
Perhaps the most celebrated thinkers of the Enlightenment, the philosophes (French for "philosophers") were a group of writers who commented and theorized about society in general.

They wrote about politics, social systems, religion, penal system reform, and female emancipation. Their work made a great impact, as it reached a broad audience, including the educated middle class.
: freedom from ignorance & misinformation
: state or system based on full
comprehension of the problems involved
: a philosophic movement of the 18th century
marked by a rejection of traditional social,
religious, and political ideas and
an emphasis on rationalism
noun \in-l-tn-mnt
1600's-late 1700s
Voltaire epitomized the Enlightenment.
He wrote on a wide range of subjects, mocked the injustices and hypocrisy of the Catholic Church, and was a crusader for religious toleration, although modern scholars have noted his own anti-Semitism.
French philosophe and
writer who lived from
1694 to 1778.
Wrote Candide and Treatise on Tolerance
Rousseau criticized the social order in The Social Contract (1762) – advocated the legitimacy of a government only if the people consented to its authority.
He believed that the general will should be represented. However, he also advocated suppressing the individual freedom of those who were against the community. In his book Emile, he railed against the repressive education system. He believed everyone had innate capabilities.
Genevan (Swiss)
philosophe who lived from
1712 to 1778
Montesquieu believed in a system of checks and balances instead of Rousseau's social contract.
Montesquieu thought there was no one perfect type of government for everyone.
He advocated a judiciary, an executive, and a legislature - each component would function on its own but be checked by the other two if it became too aggressive.
His famous work, The Spirit of the Laws (1748), profoundly influenced the U.S. Constitution (1787).
French philsophe, writer,
and poltical analyst who
lived from 1689 to 1755
Smith was the author of The Wealth of Nations (1776) and is the father of the science of political economy. He pointed out that the labor of farmers, artisans, and craftsmen constituted the real wealth of a nation, rather than its gold or silver and advocated that the state should leave economic matters alone—the policy of laissez-faire.
Scottish philsopher
and economist who lived from 1723 to 1790
Wollstonecraft was an English feminist, wrote Thoughts on the Education of Daughters (1786), which included an assessment of the few occupations available to women.

She then wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman in 1792. Desiring equality and recognition for women, Wollstonecraft wished to eradicate the tyranny of men. Her ideas of female emancipation were revolutionary at the time.
John Locke was an English philosopher, opposition political activist, a revolutionary, an Oxford academic and medical researcher who lived from 1632-1704.
Much of Locke's work is characterized by opposition to authoritarianism. This opposition is both on the level of the individual person and on the level of institutions such as government and church.
For the individual, Locke wants people to use reason to search after truth rather than simply accept the opinion of authorities or be subject to superstition.

For the institution, Locke believes it becomes important to distinguish the legitimate from the illegitimate functions of institutions and to make the corresponding distinction for the uses of force by these institutions.
His ideas were written most famously in Two Treatises of Government, the Letters Concerning Toleration, and The Reasonableness of Christianity.
Hobbes was an English philsopher and writer who lived from 1588-1679 and wrote an influential work entitled Leviathan.
Hobbes believed in civil
liberties, as government upheld a social
contract to its constituents.
However, he believed
that the true nature of
mankind was base and
selfish, and that absolute,
authoritarian power
was the best function
of government.

Aristocratic and upper bourgeoisie women known as salonnières ran and organized the salons from their homes. These great salonnières set the tone and aims of the gatherings, helping to intermingle the writers, artists, philosophers and other various patrons present.
The Renaissance
and Protestant Reformation

European Age of Exploration

The Medieval Ages
and Plague Years

American, French, Latin American Revolutions

Industrialism and Imperialism
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