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2.1.1 Structures of the Respiratory System
Transcript of 2.1.1 Structures of the Respiratory System
Modified by G. Wacker for IB
Overall function: Gas exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, pulmonary ventilation, speech, and maintaining stable pH levels.
Pathway of Air
Structures and their Functions
warm, moisten, and filter air (hair and mucus)
divide external and internal environments
carry air to lungs from trachea
spread air out to different sections of lung
occurs between the alveoli and the capillaries
diaphragm contracts, lungs expand, air inhaled
diaphragm relaxes, lungs contract, air exhaled
rib cage flexes with lungs
Stabilizing pH Levels
When an individual works harder there is more carbon dioxide to take away from muscles
carbon dioxide dissolves in plasma to form carbonic acid
the blood has acidic pH, which unbalances the pH level
Larynx- protects airways to prevent entrance of foreign matter, also responsible for speech
Larynx has two muscular folds called vocal cords
Vocal cords in larynx vibrate with air pressure produced by lungs
breathing quickens so more carbon dioxide can be exhaled - stabilizes pH - more oxygen to fuel increased cellular respiration
connects oral and nasal cavities to trachea
junction between esophagus and trachea
epiglottis covers trachea when swallowing
ribbed structure connecting pharynx and lungs
branches out into bronchi
branch out from bronchi
carry air from bronchi to alveoli
functional unit of the respiratory system
site of gas exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide with the capillaries
send deoxygenated air back up pathway