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CP 3: Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning
Transcript of CP 3: Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning
Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience Orientation
In this stage rules are obeyed simply to avoid any punishment. Whether one is to do something good or bad is determined by its physical consequences.
Example: Cleaning one's room to avoid a time-out.
Stage 2: Personal Reward Orientation
In this stage one's personal needs determine right and wrong.
Example: If you help me clean today I'll help you clean tomorrow.
Fun fact: Although this stage is primarily seen in preschool and elementary students, the first stage of moral reasoning can be seen in adulthood from time to time! Level 1: Preconventional Moral Reasoning Judgement in this level is based on others' approval, such as the expectations of society, family, and law. Level 2: Conventional Moral Reasoning Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation
Good is determined by socially agreed-upon standards of individual rights
Example: How we follow laws established by our Constitution, federal and local governments
Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principals
Moral action is determined by our inner conscience, and mat or may not be in agreement with the public opinion or society's laws.
Example: Refusal to obey a law which treats a large portion of the population as second-class citizens. Level 3: Post Conventional Moral Reasoning - Stages do not seem to be separate, sequenced, and consistent
- Moral choices can often reflect several different stages
- There are more factors to consider in moral reasoning in every day life
+ Competing Goals
+ practical consideration Stage 3: Good Boy-Nice Girl Orientation
In this stage, there is an emphasis on living up to the expectations of others and doing what pleases, aids, or is approved of by others.
Example: getting all of your work done before going out with friends Stage 4: Law and Order Orientation
In this stage, judgements consider society as a whole and are based on respecting authority and maintaining social order.
Example: paying for something instead of stealing it They know not to cross the road without holding their parents hand because "mommy said so," but they do not understand why they shouldn't - Theory is culturally biased and can not be used universally Morality of Cooperation: Children come to understand that people can make rules and people can change them As children interact with others, they can that different people have different rules. Kohlberg Lawrence Kolhberg was a professor at Harvard University, but became famous for his work in the early 1970s in developing his theory of moral reasoning
His theory was based in part on Piaget's ideas and theories of cognitive development
Kohlberg evaluated the moral reasoning of both children and adults by presenting them with moral dilemmas, or thought provoking hypothetical situations in which people must make difficult decisions.
Based on their reasoning, he proposed a sequence of stages of moral reasoning which we now know as Kohlber's Theory of Moral Reasoning