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A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity.

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Saurabh Dhiman

on 31 October 2014

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Transcript of A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity.

A developmental model of intercultural sensitive managers
"i thought i was always right until i went overseas"

Presented by Sangeeta & Saurabh
Openness to difference
Differences are changeable
Differences are a sources of renewal and equilibrium
People behave, and assign value to something
Culture is fluid and dynamic
Differences are processes
Stages 4-6
The perception of differences is at the core of cultural sensitivity
Reaction to differences
Differences are unchangeable and threatening
People have a behavior, and values
Culture is rigid and static
Differences are things
Stages 1-3
Where would each stage fall on an continuum going from ethnocentricism to relativism?
Continuum Activity
Stage 1: Denial
Deny Differences
Unaware of cultural differences, and so aren't threatened by them
"Parochialism" - having a narrow vision of the world
Reflects a limited degree of contact with cultural differences
Broad categories (ex. Asians are different from Westerners)
Extreme cases: see cultural differences in people and label them sub-human (ex. European pioneers and the North American natives)
Tend to inflict their value system on others because they see others as just being confused
Their way of behaving is natural and normal
Intercultural Communication Adventure with Little Pilot !
Accept but demonize difference
Stage 2: Defence
Denegrate differences
Often negative stereotypes are formed (threatend by differences)
A stage and not just a single act - someone who belittles one group is just as likely to do the same to another
May be poorly informed, but their defensive attitudes are out of ethnocentricism and not ignorance
Cultural superiority- thinking that all other cultures are inferior to one's own culture
Don't try to impose their values on others but try to have little association with those who are different
Trivialize difference
Stage 3: Minimization
Try to bury difference -they are still threatened by it, but don't see others as inferior or misguided
Cover differences with cultural similarities - "all mankind is ruled by common basic principles that guide values and behaviors
Approach cross-cultural situations thinking that these commonalities will be enough to communicate with one another- this is ethnocentric because the fundamental categories are absolute and their own
Neutral about difference
Stage 4: Acceptance
Change of thinking!
Different cultural frames of reference are no longer seen as threatening but a pleasure
Eager questioning about people from other cultures, and have a desire to be informed. May not completely understand other cultural frames of reference
Difference is a positive thing
Stage 5: Adaptation
Behavior changes as well as attitudes
Commonest form is of is empathy - temporary change of frame of reference, see a situation through another's eyes. The behaviors can be mental, like asking acceptable questions.
Advanced stage of Adaptation, one is a cultural pluralist- able to act in more than one frame of reference, empathizing has become habitual
Assimilation, and pluralism from a long stay in another culture are forms of mimicry and lack the development needed for this stage
Security about own culture, therefore, adaptation can occur without feeling threatened
Openess, getting to know, learning
Awareness of Differences
Depolarize negative judgements, introduce postive similarities
Grasp importance of cultural differences
Encourage exploration and research
In 6 groups come up with a short poem, skit, situation, etc... that illustrates an example in the classroom for the stage assigned.
Classroom examples activity
Intercultural Sensitivity ?
“To be effective in another culture, people must be interested in other cultures, be sensitive enough to notice cultural differences, and then also be willing to modify their behavior as an indication of respect for the people of other cultures ”
(Bhawuk and Brislin, 1992)

A developmental model for intercultural sensitivity
International Communication Competence : the ability of being sensitive to others cultures.

Globalization => 2 consequences :
Trade is growing more and more significant
The nature of the exchange is changing : not only transfer of goods or services but also of people, their knowledge and cultures. -> The appreciated skills of a worker are changing.

Awareness of Differences

Depolarize negative judgements, introduce postive similarities

Grasp importance of cultural differences

Encourage exploration and research

Development of empathy with the target culture, and the ability to inter culturally communicate.
DMIS : Change pointers in each step
Methods of cross-cultural
training :
1: Didactic
2. Experimental
3. Language training
Bicultural communication workshops
Culture specific role plays
Case study
Critical incidents exercise
Look-see trips
Teaching the expatriate the native language and/or the business language of the host country.
4. Cultural Awareness Training
5. Interaction Training
6.Cognitive Behavior Modification
The main goal is to give the expatriate insight about the concept of culture and cultural differences, by teaching awareness about the home culture.
Based on interactions between new expatriates and expatriates with more experience of the local culture.
The expatriates name what activities they recognize as rewarding or punishing in the home culture context. The idea is that the expatriate would be able to apply the same processes in the host country and be able to deal with the challenges.
Cultural sensitivity- Learn to appreciate others
- sensitivity training to develop attitudinal flexibility
-Aim: To teach awareness and principles to consider dealing with cultural sensitivity
•Deep awareness on biases and values
The U-Curve Theory by Black and Mendenhall
→4 Stages of adjustment over time
•Issue: ‘if you are effective here, you’ll be effective in host country’
•Usefulness of Meta-cognitive strategies : self reflective on their weakness must be developed to easier deal with challenges aboard

•Job Role
•Increased probability of competing work goals effectively in a new culture
•Greater understanding of beliefs and customs of other cultures
•Deeper insights into the needs and opportunities of global markets
•Reduced culture shock, greater positive adjustment to living and working in a new environment
•Better relationships and communication with people from other cultures
•Increased awareness of our own hidden cultural values, and how we are perceived by others

Trainer is not effective enough

if training is optional

lesson plan

cultural shock•language barriers

life style and environment

not enough experience

organizations money waste

not given post-training supplement
-Booster session
-Upward feedback
Inter culturally Astute managers

What is Cross Cultural Training?
-Training that prepares employees for working and living in different cultures and for interactions with persons from different backgrounds .
Recommendations to improvement :
Suggestion contd..
Companies may use pre-departure training as well as delayed training and post- training.
Cross cultural training programs should be custom designed. Differently for internal work environment and for expatriate.
Gather feedback, and use that info to update the cultural training programs.
Meta-cognitive strategies
Full transcript