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Copy of “What is an American? Genocide, Relocation, Citizenship and
Transcript of Copy of “What is an American? Genocide, Relocation, Citizenship and
Dr. Annie Isabel Fukushima
ETHNIC 2500, University of Utah
- Citizenship (Ngai) - p. 2521
- Constructed through notions of the “illegal” the unauthorized migrant (“Living the ‘Illegal’”)
- Deeply shaped by a legacy of colonization which expresses itself in the form of 5 historical periods (removal, assimilation, Indian New Deal, termination & relocation, See Snipp)
- Modernity (Notions of newness), racism, and slavery (Mignolo and Wallerstein – “Americanity as Concept”)
Citizenship < ------- > Colonization
1830 – Andrew Jackson Removes indigenous people under the “Indian Removal Policy” – the Trail of tears. Implemented in 1837. Indigenous peoples in the then US – Cherokee and dozens of other tribes east of the Mississippi were forced to move westward to the present day Oklahoma. (1838) (Snipp on Removal p.35). Lasted half a century. 17,000 Cherokee were ordered to leave their homes. 8,000 died. Half the Creek tribe did not survive the relocation.
Exclusions & Inclusions
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) – Missouri, Scott was denied citizenship. Constitution was for and among white EuroAmericans and did not intend to include slaves or free black persons (Ngai 2527)
Chinese Exclusionary Act (1882) & Yellow Peril Discourse (The image of Asians as threatening and perception of their racial unassimilability (Ngai)
1930s - 1940s
Asiatic Barred Zone Act
1924: Ongoing Inclusions & Exclusions
American Indian Citizenship Act – American Indians are granted citizenship. Although they were barred from voting until 1957 (Ngai 2528). An example of what Ngai calls territorial birth right citizenship – citizenship as to ensure their colonial control of territories.
Johnson Reed Act - The immigration act was the first comprehensive immigration act
1934 - Indian New Deal (Self Governance)
1937 - Tydings McDuffie Act
1942 - E.O. 9066 & Bracero Program signed with Mexico
Wong Kim Ark
American Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act
Immigration Reform & Control Act
Neoliberal Economics & Exclusions
1993 – Operation hold the line
1994 – NAFTA
1996 – IIRAIRA - Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996
The lessons on Being an African immigrant in America
Mwende “FreeQuency” Katwiwa
"Some 88 braceros died of sun stroke as a result of a round-up that had taken place in 112-degree heat, and [an American labor official] argued that more would have died had Red Cross not intervened. At the other end of the border, in Nuevo Laredo, a Mexican labor leader reported that 'wetbacks' were 'brought [into Mexico] like cows' on trucks and unloaded fifteen miles down the highway from the border, in the desert." (Ngai, Impossible Subjects).
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
Genealogy of legal events
Material trace of history (Ngai citing Lisa Lowe) – tracing history through policies.
Icon image is
but content is
Birth Right Citizenship
Birth right citizenship – because you are born in the U.S., you are automatically a citizen of the U.S. In the modern era of global migration, birthright citizenship has been a mechanism for incorporating new immigrants, and its disavowal a mechanism for exclusion” (Ngai 2530)
Alien citizenship – a defining legal characteristic of the racial formation of Asian and Latino ethnic groups (Ngai 2523). Includes racial exclusions
Noncitizen nations – colonial subjects in the Philippines (until 1937), Puerto Rico – a status between alien and citizen. Puerto Ricans
Territorial Birthright Citizenship
Territorial birthright citizenship – consolidate US conquest of sovereign peoples. Example – Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo at the end of the Mexican American War in 1848 – Mexicans in the territory would become citizens in one year unless if they opted to maintain Mexican citizenship (Ngai 2527)
A person with rights to have rights
Upon returning to the U.S. after leaving, Wong Kim Ark was denied entry even though he was born in Sacramento CA. It turns out they could not deny him entry even though Chinese were excluded because of the citizenship clause. They tried to strip him of birthright citizenship based on the 1882 chinese exclusion act (Ngai reading)
Racial unassimilability (Ngai)
The real and imagined association of Mexicans with "illegal aliens," along with the creation of a landless, migratory agricultural proletariat and the extension of Jim Crow segregation to Mexicans in the southwest, stripped all ethnic Mexicans (regardless of legal status) of legitimate belonging and impelled the construction of Mexican American alien citizens. (Ngai 2522)
"The making of the illegal: illegal has become so emotionally
charged that it dehumanizes not only unauthorized immigrants, who are objectified as nothing more than faceless criminals, but even those who use the term uncritically. The widespread use of the term illegal leaves no room to consider the moral and policy contradictions that are behind the need for people to leave their homes and risk their lives crossing the border without authorization or to overstay visas and live in a precarious status" (Marquardt et al., 161).
[Historical Period 1: Removal]
[Historical Period 2: Assimilation]
[Historical Period 3: Indian New Deal]
[Historical Period 4: Termination & Removal] - Attempts to Terminate Reservations
[Historical Period 5: Self Determination
Word cloud was created asking students: "who is an 'American'" using polleverywhere; not provided for privacy reasons.
Image source: http://alisonapush.blogspot.com/2014/01/chinese-immigration-and-exclusion.html
Image source: http://origins.osu.edu/sites/origins.osu.edu/files/19%20Indian%20Land%20for%20Sale.jpg
Image source: https://img.washingtonpost.com/wp-apps/imrs.php?src=https://img.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp-content/uploads/sites/21/2015/08/CROP-Sect2oWongKimArkDeparture_StatementPR_a.jpg&w=480