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Skeletal System

Bones, Structures, Injuries, and Joints

Brandi DeAngelo

on 26 April 2011

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Transcript of Skeletal System

The Skeletal System Bone The surface of a bone The osteoclasts (pink) are types of bone cells, which help control bone tissue Bone marrow is found in the innermost part of your bones. Its job is to make blood cells. bone marrow Radius Ulna Carpals The wrist is composed of eight carpal bones The bones of the palm are the metacarpals Phalanges= Bones of the fingers Femur Patella (Kneecap) Tibia Fibula Tarsal bones Metatarsals Phalanges (Finger bones are named the same) Spine Ribs Clavicle (Collar Bone) Scapula Sternum 20 Major Bones of the Body Functions of the Skeletal System The skeletal system is for:

Support of the body and body organs. No support beams in a building=the building has no support; therefore, it collapses.

Protection of organs and other systems. One example is the cranium, or skull. The skull supports the brain.

Blood cells are producted in the bones. White cells, red cells, and other elements of the blood are made in the bone marrow.

The skeletal system helps organisms move. The bone sockets & joints are connected to bones. Although, bones cannot move by themselves-muscles are needed.

The bones, as everyone has probably heard, contain calcium. This is just one of the minerals the bones store. Other minerals help us think, move around, breath, etc. The skull protects the brain from damage. Hinge joints allow for only a backward and forward motion. It is found in arms and legs. Gliding Joints:
These types of joints glide past each other. One gliding joint is on the top of the spine, which allows the cranium to rotate. Ball & Socket joints allow for radial movement in practically any direction, and they are found in the pelvis and shoulder. Pivot Joint:
This allows a rotation around an axis. They're found in the neck and forearm. Pelvis/Hip Cranium Humerus Osteology is the study of the bones Endoskeleton -The basic support structure of a mammal, which has two parts; bone and cartilage. It is the support structure of vertebre animals (a lesson to bone up on) FACT: Humans and giraffes have the same number of neck bones (Giraffe neck vertebrae are just much longer!) Fact: You have 27 bones in your hand FACT: A baby is born with over 300 bones, which, as they grow, fuse together to make a complete 206 adult bones Cartilage degrades faster than bones; this is why so many skeletons are found without ears or a nose FACT: Cartilage also does not contain blood vessels or nerve cells FACT: The bones in your skull are bound with fiber Appendicular Skeleton (The appendicular skeleton is in pink)
126 bones are included in the appendicular skeleton.
The word appendicular means appendage, & appendage means a part that is joined to something larger.
The appedicular skeleton is divided into 6 major regions:
1. Pectoral Girdles (4 Bones)- left & right clavicle and Scapula
2. Arm & Forearm (6 Bones)- left & right humerus (arm), ulna, and radius (forearm)
3. Hands (58 Bones)- left & right carpal (wrist), metacarpal, proximal phalanges, middle phalanges, distal phalanges, and sesamoid
4. Pelvis (2 Bones)- left & right os coxae (illium)
5. Thigh and leg bones (8 Bones)- femur (thigh), fibia, patella (knee), and fibula (leg)
6. Feet (56 Bones)- Tarsals (14) (ankle), Metatarsals (10), Proximal phalanges, middle phalanges, distal phalanges, and sesamoid.
Axial Skeleton (The axial skeleton is in white)
The axial skeleton is fused together, unlike the appendicular skeleton.
The axial skeleton has 5 parts:
1. Human Skull
2. Ossicles (found in the inner ear)
3. Hyoid (found in the throat)
4. Rib Cage
5. Vertabral Column (Spine)

"Axial" is from the word "Axis" which refers to the fact that all of the axial bones are medial. Synovial Fluid Synovial Fluid is a clear substance with an egg like consistancy. Its job is to reduce friction between the articular cartilage of synovial joints during movement.
Synovial Joints are the most common joints in mammals, and provide the most movement in the body. A bursa (Plural; Bursae), as shown in the picture, is a small fluid-like sac lined with a synovial membrane. It provides a cushion between the bones and the tendons and/or muscles around a joint. This helps provide free movement & reduces friction. A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension. Bursa Tendon Ligaments connect bones to other bones to form a joint. (They do not connect muscles to bones-that's the tendon's job!) Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints, which results in pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited movement. There are over 100 different types of arthritis. Arthritis Hands Joint; point of connection between two bones Ossification the process of bone formation usually beginning at particular centers in each prospective bone and involving the activities of special osteoblasts that segregate and deposit inorganic bone substance about themselves Picture taken from Wikipedia Fontanelles are soft spots on a baby's head that during birth enable the bony plates of the skull to flex, allowing the child's head to pass through the birth canal. The ossification of the bones of the skull causes the fontanelles to close over by a child's second birthday Fontanelle The dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones except at the joints and serving as an attachment for muscles and tendons. Periosteum: a microscopic channel in bone, through which a blood vessel runs. Haversian Canals Some Injuries and Disorders of the Skeletal System Arthritis; inflamation of the bone
Osteoporosis; reduction in calcium and phosphorous deposition in the bones
Fracture; breakage
Sprain; severe painful injury to a ligament or tissue that covers a joint
Osteoarthritis; joint disease caused due to breakdown and eventual loss of the cartilage of one or more joints
Rickets; skeletal system disorder that causes bowed legs in children due to deficiency of vitamin D and calcium
Kyphosis; "Hunchback", a forward bending of the spine due to deformation of the bones in the upper part of the spine leading to a slouching posture. It's a spinal deformity caused by diseases like tuberculosis, syphilis, and rheumatoid arthritis

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