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DNA Fingerprinting

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Tegvir Deol

on 14 January 2015

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Transcript of DNA Fingerprinting

DNA Fingerprinting
Step One: Obtaining DNA samples
Obtain a sample of DNA

Example: blood, hair or saliva

This sample contains white blood cells which are broken open and all the useable DNA is separated
Step Two: Cutting, sizing, and sorting
In RFLP special enzymes called restriction enzymes are used to cut DNA at specific places

Restriction enzymes: DNA-cutting enzymes found in bacteria

Restriction enzymes work by cutting the DNA at a specific sequence, which produces either blunt ends or sticky ends

This results in many fragments of different lengths
Sajeevan Sujanthan: Home Renovator
Alana Cristante: Personal Assistant


Sujeevan Sujanthan: Home Renovator
Case File No. 3
Category:
First Degree Murder

Cause of Death
: Suffocation by strangling

Location:
591 County Rd 18, Cherry Valley

Date and Time:
January, 2014 11:00 pm

Case File No. 3
Safety Concerns:
Category:
First Degree Murder

Cause of Death
: Suffocation

Location:
591 County Rd 18, Cherry Valley

Date and Time:
January, 2014 11:00 pm
In the lab
Types of DNA Procedures:
1) RFLP Analysis:
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism


2) PCR Analysis:
Polymerase Chain Reaction



3) STR Analysis:
Short Tandem Repeats

DNA Fingerprinting:
Case File No. 3
By: Tegvir Deol, Gurneet Bhela and Shaambaavi Sharma
# 1
# 2
# 3
Summary: Tasha Elswood, also known as Lady Tasha is a rich women who lives in the Prince Edward Suites has been murdered last night at 11:00pm.

On that day there were only three people present in her residence: Her personal assistant,Alana and two home renovators (brothers), Sajee and Sujee.
DNA Fingerprinting

Also known as DNA typing, DNA profiling, genetic fingerprinting, genotyping, or identity testing

DNA fingerprinting is a test to identify and evaluate the genetic information known as DNA in a person's cells

Technique developed in 1984 by British geneticist: Alec Jeffrey
DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Nucleic acids: information-containing molecule found in the nucleus of every human cell

Monomer units of DNA are nucleotides; polymer units are polynucleotides

Each nucleotide consists of a 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose), a nitrogen containing base attached to the sugar, and a phosphate group

DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid


Four different types of nucleotides found in DNA:

A is for adenine (Purine)
G is for guanine (Purine)
C is for cytosine (Pyrimidine)
T is for thymine (Pyrimidine)

Pairings: A-T and G-C
DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid

Important Functions
Long-term storage of information

Responsible for coding proteins

Determines all of our biological traits that get passed from one generation to the next

DNA Fingerprinting
Why is it so important?
Human health care research

Diagnosis of inherited disorders

Crime investigations

Body identification

How does it work?
Step One: Obtaining DNA samples

Step Two: Cutting, sizing, and sorting

Step Three: Transfer of DNA to nylon

Step Four: Probing

Step Five: DNA fingerprint
RFLP Analysis
RFLP Analysis
Category:
First Degree Murder

Cause of Death
: Poisoning

Location:
591 County Rd 18, Cherry Valley

Date and Time:
January, 2014 11:00 pm

Cause of Death: Poisoning from Botulinum Toxin
Fingerprint belongs to one of the home renovators:
Sajeevan Sujanthan
Who does the piece of hair belong to?
Step Two: Cutting, sizing, and sorting (Continued)
RFLP Analysis

Using gel electrophoresis, the fragments are sorted according to size

Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins and their fragments

When the current of the electric field is turned on, the negative RFLPs will start to move across the gel towards the positive end

RFLP Analysis
Step Three: Transfer of DNA to nylon
In this step the gel is covered by a piece of nylon and thin paper towels, which are used to absorb moisture from the gel
The DNA fragments get gently transferred from the gel to the surface of the nylon

"Blotting"
RFLP Analysis
Step Four: Probing
Step Five: DNA fingerprint
RFLP Analysis
Radioactive or colored probes are added to the nylon sheet producing a pattern

Each probe sticks in only one or two specific places on the nylon sheet

A photographic film is placed on top of the nylon surface

Dark bands will show up when the film is developed, which marks the length of the RFLPs that were hybridized

The DNA fingerprint is complete!

Researchers able to read the fingerprint and match it to others

RFLP lengths in the DNA are able to be compared
RFLP Analysis:
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

STR Test Analysis :
Short Tandem Repeat Test
PCR Analysis:
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Recombiant DNA
Recombinant DNA is made by combining DNA from two or more sources

The process depends on the ability to cut and re-join DNA molecules at restriction sites

Recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to isolate one gene or any other segment of DNA
Blood sample obtained from the nails of the corpse, indicative of signs of struggle.
CULPRIT: UNKNOWN
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
DNA Fingerprinting
References
Can be applied to any human sample that contains cells with nuclei

DNA tests are extremely sensitive and can be conducted using small samples

Resists degeneration
Giuseppe, M. (2003). Nelson biology 12. Toronto: Nelson Thomson Learning.

DNA Fingerprinting (n.d.). Retrieved January 1, 2015, from
http://gcyouthministries.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=2bXd2ux8QHM=&tabid=183&mid=614.

DNA Fingerprinting (n.d.). Retrieved January 1, 2015, from
http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/dna-fingerprinting
http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/science/dna-fingerprinting-applications.html

Statistical Evaluation of Forensic DNA Profile Evidence (n.d.). Retrieved January 1, 2015, from
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev-statistics-022513-115602

DNA Profiling (n.d.). Retrieved January 1, 2015, from
http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/DNA_Profiling
http://www.cellmark.co.uk/geninfo/facts.php

DNA Fingerprinting in Human Health and Society. (n.d.). Retrieved January 1, 2015, from
http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BA/DNA_Fingerprinting_Basics.php

DNA fingerprinting. (n.d.). Retrieved January 1, 2015, from
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/167155/DNA-fingerprinting

Forensic Science Central. (n.d.). Retrieved January 1, 2015, from
http://forensicsciencecentral.co.uk/dna.shtml

DNA fingerprinting. (n.d.). Retrieved January 1, 2015, from
http://drugdiscovery.webs.com/socialethicalissues.htm
New DNA profiling technologies can give incorrect results

DNA profiles can only offer statistical probability

DNA databases stored on computer are vulnerable to exploitation

DNA evidence can easily be planted at a crime scene
Wearing googles

Wearing gloves

Wearing apron

Lab space to be dry and free of water when using any electrical equipment

Caution:The radioactive probes could stain your skin and clothing
Impacts of DNA Fingerprinting
Social and Ethical Impacts

DNA fingerprinting has in fact become a challenge to our rights and freedom

Concern of identification of relatives

Controversy of whether DNA fingerprinting should be used only for criminal investigations or if it can be used predict if a person is vulnerable to criminal activities or illnesses

Has shown that DNA testing is very accurate in identifying characteristics of individuals



Environmental and Economic Impacts
DNA fingerprinting can be used on other organisms such as plants for research

It does not directly impact the environment

Recombinant DNA used for gene cloning can lead to the question of raising genetically altered animals solely for the benefits of human use

The economic problems fingerprinting carries are the expense

Implications in health care, research and potential employment
DNA Fingerprinting:
Case Study
WHO IS THE CULPRIT FOR LADY TASHA'S MURDER ?
THANK YOU!
The End
Anna Nicole Smith was a star in Hollywood whose claim to fame was 1993 Playmate of the Year and a marriage to a fan, Texas oil tycoon and billionaire, Howard Marshall, who died soon after marriage. Anna died in February, 2007 a few months after giving birth to her daughter, Dannielynn. At the time of Ms. Smith's death, she was married to her lawyer, Howard Stern. A Los Angeles photographer by the name of Larry Birkhard claimed he was the father of Dannielynn. Since Danielynn is the heiress to millions of dollars, the paternity case received tremendous notoriety in the tabloids as well as on TV. The court ordered that both men submit DNA samples. After laboratory testing, The DNA match was with Birkhard who subsequently took custody of the child. DNA fingerprinting was able to determine who the biological father of Dannielynn was.
Anna Nicole Smith
What impact would DNA have on a person getting a job?
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