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Period 4 - War of 1812 -- Jackson

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Patrick Keating

on 23 October 2015

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Transcript of Period 4 - War of 1812 -- Jackson

Period IV (1800-1848)
These notes cover 1812-1848
Part II: The War of 1812 and the Upsurge of Nationalism
A. The War of 1812
(1) European Wars Spill Over to America
(i) Impressment: forcing deserted British sailors and American citizens into the British navy
Seizing American ships also taking place
TJ banned British warships from American ports
(ii) Embargo of 1807: TJ believed economic pressure would cause British/French to respect American neutrality
American ships could not enter the seas until England and France stopped harassment
Result - disaster for American economy
Most unpopular act by TJ
(iii) Non-intercourse Act (1808) - Madison now president
Opened trade with all countries except England and France
American economy fallen into economic depression
(2) What Happened?
(i) US tried to avoid war with both with policy of neutrality

(ii) War Hawks in Congress demanded war - Federalists opposed it (why?)
Hawks - led by Henry Clay; wanted the war to acquire more territory, economic growth

(iii) President Madison asked Congress to declare war in June of 1812

(iv) War proved indecisive
(3) What caused the war?
(i) British practice of impressment - violated American neutrality, insulted national pride

(ii) War Hawks supported war to drive British from Canada and to remove Indian threat on the frontier

(iii) US completely unprepared for war: Army (6000 men) Navy (17 ships)
(4) The Outbreak of War

US - three pronged invasion of Canada with intent to destroy Indian villages, defeat British troops, take Montreal - largely unsuccessful
British blockade of the US
Focus on Native Americans (Tecumseh and Shawnees)
(5) The Attack on Washington
Napolean defeated in 1814 - America now Britain's only enemy
Attack DC and burn the city - including White House, Capitol
Ironically - peace process already in progress
Treaty of Ghent
Conflict less important now that European war was over
Public in Britain did not want another prolonged conflict
Treaty did not address impressment or neutral trading rights
Simply restored diplomatic relations between Britain and America
(6) Political Effects of the War
(i) Hartford Convention: Federalist meeting
Debated nullification and secession
War of 1812 - disastrous to their interests, did not trust the West
Financial compensation for lost trade
(ii) Nullification -- the right of an individual state to nullify federal law that they felt was unjust
Significance -- went against everything the Federalist believed (power of federal gov't)

(iii) Secession -- a single state or group of states leaving the US

**Hartford convention displayed the end of the Federalist party**
US was now more united than ever
(iv) Era of Good Feelings
US remained free of foreign conflicts
Political strife at home was at bare minimum
Part III - The Era of Good Feelings (1816-1824)
"The Second War for Independence"

Small war (6,000 Americans KIA)
Americans stood up for themselves; gained respect (diplomats)
Federalist Party dying still
Manufacturing prospered
Canadians - betrayed
James Monroe and the Surge of Nationalism
Last president of the "Virginia dynasty"
Nationalism, harmony - peace and prosperity; politics and war conflict ending
The American System
Henry Clay (S, KY) - began his career as one of the leading War Hawks; advocate of American System after war of 1812
Internal improvements - transportation projects (roads, canals)

Goal of American system was to promote national unity and economic growth
Tariff that would protect American industries and raise revenue to fund internal improvements
National bank - provide financial stability
Network of federally funded roads and canals
Vibrant economy with increased trade
Tariff of 1816: raised tariff rates to 22%
Provided adequate protection for American business; revenues for internal improvements
Second Bank of the US: provided credit, established Tariff of 1816; encourage interstate commerce, production
B. Judicial Nationalism
Marshall Court -- continued to have decisions that opposed states rights and strengthened power of federal gov't
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819): declared the national bank constitutional
Confirmed right of Congress to use implied powers
Denied the right of a state to tax the legitimate activities of the federal gov't
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824): declared that only Congress has power to regulate interstate commerce
Established the commerce clause as a key mechanism for expansion of federal power
Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
Ruled that a state cannot pass laws to impair a legal private contract
Upheld the sanctity of private contracts against state encroachments
The Missouri Compromise
(1) Problems developing
1789 - North and South equal in wealth/population
Wealth and population changing; favoring the north
(2) House and the Senate
House: 105 - North; 81 - South
Senate: 11 - North; 11 South
(3) Missouri Applies for statehood (1819)
Tallmadge Amendment: passed by Northern controlled HofR
Prohibited further introduction of slaves into MO and provided for gradual emancipation of slaves already in MO
Senate rejected; IGNITED the slavery debate
(4) Clay's compromise
Missouri would be admitted into Union as a slave state
Maine would be admitted as a free state
Slavery would be prohibited in the remaining portions of the LA Purchase north of latitude 36°30' (36th parallel)
(5) Significance: temporarily diffused political crisis over slavery
Foreshadowed the divisive debates over the expansion of slavery that will dominate 1840s-1850s
"This momentous question, like a fire bell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror."
The Monroe Doctrine

(1) Napoleonic Wars
Accelerated Spain's decline as a great power
Spanish gov't found it difficult to maintain its possessions in the Americas

(2) Adams-Onis Treaty
Exploited Spain's weaknesses; Spain cedes FL to the US; US abandoned claims to N. Mexico (Texas)
Defined the SW boundary of the LA purchase
(3) Spain's Losses
Lost almost its entire New World Empire
Chile, Peru, Columbia, Mexico fought wars for liberation

(4) Napoleon Defeated
European powers suppress other revolutionary movements
Spain allies with France - JQ Adams, Monroe fearful they would get involved in Latin America
(5) Key Points (1823)
Republican governments in Americas are different and separate from Europe
American continent no longer open to European colonization
US will regard European interference as hostile behavior
The US will not interfere in the internal affairs of European nations
(6) Effect on Europe
Refrained from interfering in the New World because of British warships, not Monroe's words

(7) Longterm Significance
Became the cornerstone of American foreign policy in the western hemisphere
America now becoming a world power
Part IV: The Age of Jackson (1824-1836)
A. Basics of the Jackson Administration
(1) Election of 1824 -- Jackson, Adams, Calhoun, Clay
(i) Democratic-Republicans UNCHALLENGED
Congressional caucus selected Crawford (GA)
Tenessee state legislature - Jackson (TN)
Kentucky legislature - Clay (KY)
New England DRs - Adams (MA)
(ii) Andrew Jackson
Received more popular votes and more electoral votes
Did not receive a majority - election thrown into the HofR
(iii) Role of Henry Clay
Clay defeated in election, used his position to get Adams elected
Influenced House to elect Adams -- why?
Named Sec. of State -- "Corrupt bargain"

(iv) Adams deal with Clay tarnished his presidency
Jackson hailed as a champion of the people
Wins 1828 election easily
(2) Jacksonian Democracy
(i) Marked the beginning of a new era in American political history -- vowed to include the voice of the people in the election process
Expanded suffrage to include all white men

(ii) Self-made man -- believed that average American could quickly master government jobs
"Spoils system"

(iii) First president from the West
Distrusted Eastern elite
Attacked special privileges in America
B. Jackson as President
(1) Tariff of Abominations (1828): Congress passed tariff that set rates at record levels
Planters argued that the industrial NE flourished, the South forced to sell its cotton in an unprotected world market
Also had to buy expensive manufactured goods from the North
(2) Kitchen Cabinet -- nickname for Jackson's inner circle of political supporters (rarely met with actual cabinet)
Spoils system -- give political supporters jobs in government
(3) The Nullification Crisis

(i) John C. Calhoun - VP wrote "South Carolina Exposition and Protest" to denounce Tariff of Abomination
Argued that states could declare law "null and void"

(ii) Doctrine of Nullification
Used states rights arguments first argued by TJ and Madison (KY/VA Resolves)
Did not advocate secession - saw nullification as a viable option that would prevent disunion
(4) Webster-Hayne Debate (1830)
Hayne - defended states rights (nullification)
Webster - Constitution created by the people, not the states
Denounced states rights; only Supreme Court can determine constitutionality
(5) Jackson and the Force Bill
South Carolina adopted ordinance of nullification
Jackson called Congress to pass a "Force Bill" authorizing use of military to enforce federal laws in SC
Henry Clay offers compromise tariff - SC rescinds ordinance
C. Jackson and the Native Americans
(1) Indian Removal Act (1830)
125,000 Native Americans who lived east of MS River surrounded by white settlers - wanted them across the MS resettled
Act provided for the exchange of Indian lands in the East for government lands in the newly established Indian territory
(2) Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
Cherokees legally challenged Jackson's order
Court upheld the Cherokee Nation's legal right to their land
Court relies on Executive to enforce its decisions
Jackson: "John Marshall has made his decision, now let HIM enforce it."

(3) Trail of Tears - Jackson defies Court's decision
1838 - US Army forcibly removed 17,000 Cherokee from their ancestral land
800 mile journey
One fourth died from disease and exhaustion
D. The Bank War and the Rise of the Whigs
(1) The Second Bank of the United States
Charter set to expire in 1836
Jackson regarded bank as a "monster" - vetoed a bill to recharter the bank
Credit expanded, country flooded with paper currency, rampant speculation
Demise -- led to Panic of 1837 - lengthy economic slump; banks reduced loans, unemployment rose
(2) The Rise of Whigs
Issues that contributed to national debates:
South Carolina nullification crisis
Indian Removal Act
Battle over national bank

King Andrew I
Leaders such as Webster and Clay hated Jackson
Drew together to form the Whig Party
What did the Whigs like?
Protective tariffs
Internal improvements
Renewed national bank
United by animosity toward Jackson and his successor, Martin Van Buren

William Henry Harrison v. "Van Ruin"
Whigs nominate Harrison to oppose Van Buren in Election of 1840
Blamed "Van Ruin" for economic slump
"Log cabin and hard cider" campaign - first modern election -- both parties actively campaigned among the voting masses
Whigs v. Democrats
Sharply contrasting views
Both parties were spread across broad geographic regions
Spread across social classes
Endorsed the increased political participation of the common man
Full transcript