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Teaching and Learning with Technology in Education
Transcript of Teaching and Learning with Technology in Education
A handicap arises when an individual is unable to fulfill a role due to an impairment or disability. It is critical to understand that a handicap is not a characteristic of an individual. It should only be used to identify the impact or consequence of the disability on the individual.
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act introduced a set of guidelines for public schools to improve education through the following changes: heightened accountability, enhanced flexibility, and local controls of funds, enhanced parental choice, and increased use of research-based instructional methods.
The number of children with autism receiving special education and other services has increased steadily in the US since the early 1990's and it is unclear how long it will continue or if it is leveling off. Between 1992 and 2008 the number of autism services reported increased from 13% to 28% each year and by 1700% overall.
Despite the efforts of most universities to improve the preparation of teachers to use technology in the classroom, most teachers begin their career with minimal experience using technology in three ways.
1) enhance their own productivity
2) enhance the effectiveness of instruction and the success of all students, and/or
3) enable them to acquire and use assistive technology for students in need of performance support.
The common three-credit course, first developed in the 1980's continues to be the norm for preparing teachers; unfortunately, it is generally inadequate in exploiting the power and possibilities that technology offers.
The use of technology within special education has the potential to transform the learners' experiences. Teachers need to know about the technology and how to use the technology that affords learning specific concepts and strategies within their classroom.
It is also important that teachers "know what they don't know" regarding technology in their content area. Research is required to acquire this knowledge along with time and professional development to understand the procedural knowledge of using the technology.
Teaching and Learning with Technology in Education
By Teresa Keith and Valkari Dietzel
When an impairment limits an individual from performing an activity in a manner normally expected for human beings (communicating with others, hearing, movement, manipulating objects, and so on), it is referred to as a Disability.
Issues and Problems in
Implications of the
No Child Left Behind Act for Special Education
Trends in the
Prevalence of Autism
Need For Trained Personnel
In special education, a teacher is incorporating the Tech-PACK when he or she reviews a lesson plan and without hesitation, thinks about the pedagogy and technology that can be used to meet the unique needs of each student on their caseload and what adaptations may need to be made.
Strategies For Improving Special Education Tech-PACK
Special Education Technology Knowledge
Introduction to Special Education
Education for students with special needs encompasses strategies for both those with physical and/or mental deficits and those with special gifts or talents.
The terms impairment, disability, and handicap are often
used synonymously. The differences among these concepts have important implications for the use of technology in classrooms.
It is important not to make assumptions concerning a person's ability or limitations simply because he or she has an impairment.
A student who has lost the function of his right has an impairment; this condition will have little or no impact on a variety of life functions. However, this student may encounter situations where the inability to use two arms places him at a disadvantage.
In the United States, federal law recognizes several types of disabilities. The fields of special education and rehabilitation have had a long-standing interest in technology. Special Education technology has been a part of the US educational system since at least 1879 and is referred to as Assistive Technology.
Assistive technology extends the abilities of an individual in ways that provide physical access and sensory access . Technology can help address special teaching and learning needs.
Legal and Policy Directives
Special Education, more than other areas of education, is governed by laws and policies. This means that teachers, administrators, and special education technology specialists must be well versed in federal and state laws, policies, and procedures.
To learn more about the legal and policy foundations of the field of special education technology, consult the following resource:
U.S. Department of Education
Technology-Related Assistance Act For Individuals with Disabilities (Public Law 100-407)
Was passed in 1988 and provides funding for statewide systems and services to provide assistive technology devices and services to individuals with disabilities.
Reauthorization of the
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
(Public Law 105-17)
Passed in 1997 and mandates that every individualized education program (IEP) team "consider" assistive technology when planning the educational program of an individual with a disability.
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
Requires documentation that each school is meeting specific performance criteria established in the law. One benefit is that it has focused public attention on the persistent underachievement of students with physical disabilities.
To address this trend, there has been the development of numerous video capture and editing solutions. One solution is video modeling where learners watch a video of a person completing a certain targeted behavior followed by the learner practicing the behavior via video. Feedback is provided when the teacher and learner view the footage of the learner's performance while the teacher provides consequences for appropriate or non-appropriate behavior.
Mobile Apps For Education
Turn Taker - Autism
The Turn Taker uses visual and/or audio cues to facilitate turn taking and/or sharing in children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, Down syndrome, or other special need. This app has also been used successfully with young children, chidren diagnosed with ADHD, and with any child who finds it difficult to share. (Android App/$3.99)
American Sign Language
American Sign Language (ASL) has been recognized as a world language and has become the third most widely used language in America. Signing empowers children with special needs by offering them improved communication, increased self-esteem and social interactions, and reduces negative behaviors.
Strategies for Special Education
Students at the University of Houston have developed a device called "MyVoice" which uses a video camera to capture a person's sign language movements and software processes the word or phrase into speech, which is transmitted through an electronic voice.
Requirements For Inclusive Classrooms
Universal Design for Learning
Technology integration must include both assistive and instructional technology
Advance technology solutions that are complex electrical or hydraulic systems (e.g., stair lift, powered wheelchairs, voice-activated environmental control.)
Restrictions Regarding Use
Low technology solutions that can provide an appropriate level of support to be successful in a specific task(e.g., personal word lists, highlighting markers, and organizing systems).
Flexible for enhansing individual performance
Available in any environment at any time.
Strategies such as teaching a student different ways to use his/her body in a different manner to minimize the impact of an impairment (e.g., one-handed typing).
During the 1990's, a major change occurred in how special education services were delivered. The process of mainstreaming is placing students with disabilities in self-contained special education classrooms and allowing them to participate in selected classes in general education. The shift to inclusion has been controversial, but students now spend the majority of the school day in general education classrooms and receive a variety of support services.
Although students with disabilities have gained physical inclusion into general education, access to the general education curriculum is still limited. Without appropriate modifications, a student with disabilities will not be able to perform at the same level as typical students. Many special education students do not have access to the information they are expected to learn (e.g., blind students,students with learning disabilities, or cannot read at grade level). With the NCLB expectation that all students will achieve high academic standards, there is an urgent need for assistive technology to help students in the general education classroom succeed.
Principles of universal design have emerged from our understanding of the design of physical environments for individuals with disabilities. Recently, universal design concepts have been applied to computers by making disability accessibility software a part of the operating system.
Teachers working with students within inclusion settings face relentless demand to modify curricular, instructional, and assessment materials. Modifications will always be necessary as a result of technology, media, and materials that are not designed with an understanding of the range of diversity found in every classroom. There is always a delay in obtaining information that is readily available to their peers without disabilities. Universal design seeks to alter this paradigm by providing a new way of thinking about access that is proactive rather than reactive.
Web Accessibility is the recent push to make websites more usable by people with various disabilities. Websites are being designed with a specific set of criteria in mind. Like with universal design for learning, the intention of web accessibility is to provide greater access to information for all useres by designing websites for accessibility from the ground up.
Tech-Pack Needs & Challenges
in Special Education
Special Education Pedagogical Knowledge
Involves helping an individual learn or improve performance, often the focus of education, training, and therapy.
Focuses on using technology to accommodate difficulties performing specific tasks.
Speech recognition software
General Integration Strategies for All Students
Planning for the needs of students with disabilities involves ensuring that the curriculum is accessible.
When technology is used to make the curriculum acessible, students with disabilities have the same opportunities as students without disabilities.
Research suggests that technology-supported curriculum may lead to student involvment and enhanced self-determination.
The field of special education presents a unique array of special obstables related to teachers' content knowledge. First, unlike other content areas, special education entails understanding content that relates to public law, technology options, and adaptations. Second, special education content changes so rapidly that teachers need to keep constantly updated on the most up-to-date, accurate resources by attending numerous professional development opportunities, attending conferences, and personal research.
Since pedagogical knowledge is often specific to the content area, teachers also frequently struggle to create best strategies to teach topics that may be somewhat or largely unfamiliar to them. Special education teachers face special pedagogical challengs. For example, even when a teacher is aware of all the latest technologies, public laws, caseloads, and content, they still need to know the correct pedagogy to be used within the classroom to assist the learner. All these strategies may be supported and facilitated with technologies, but teachers must first be aware of the basic pedagogies associated with best practice for each special education topic.
Strategies for improving Tech-PACK vary a great deal and there is not one perfect approach for every teacher. After reflecting on their Tech-PACK, teachers must seek out opportunities to help them move their self-identified Tech-PACK to the optimal zone: the intersection of knowledge of all three components (content, pedagogy, and technology). Each teacher should consider the following questions and activities.
Do I have the content knowledge needed to assist my students in meeting the standards with my classroom?
Do I have the technological knowledge needed to teach the special education content within my classroom?
Do I have the pedagogical knowledge needed to teach the special education content within my classroom?
Strategies for Students with Cognitive Disabilities
Mild Cognitive Disabilities
Serious emotional disabilities
Developmentally delayed (MR)
Memory and thinking skills
Academically challenged with Reading,
Language Arts, and Mathematics
The key with the use of technology is to balance remediation of skill deficits with activities that help develop more creative, higher level thinking.
JumpStart Kindergarten Reading
Simon Sounds it Outs
iPad - Speak It!
Interactive Story Books
Quicktionary Reading Pen
Voice Recognition Software
Mobile Apps - Vlingo
Word Prediction Software
NEO Writer (TI)
Write Out Loud
Math Shape Up
Moderate & Severe
Time, Money & Fractions on Track
Moderate and Severe Cognitive Abilities
Considerable effort is devoted to ensuring that these students acquire daily living skills such as:
Money & time management
Strategies for Students with Sensory Disabilities
Strategies for Students with Physical Disabilities
Physical disabilities affect a person's mobility and agility. Difficulties with motor movements may involve gross- or fine-motor movement and frequently exist concurrently with other disabilities.
Power wheelchair operated by a
and joysticks to control and getting input into a computer as well as activating environmental control systems.
Assessing the need for assistive technology involves a team of specialists including
Assistive technology specialists
GOAL = Identify appropriate tools for access and control that will allow the individual to function across environments:
Sensory disabilities involve impairments associated with the loss of hearing or vision.
Three kinds of technology facilitate independence and access to environments and information
Canes and Sensor Technology
Tools to Convert Printed Information to Audio
Optical Charactor Recognition (OCR)
Scan and Read Pro
SuperNova Screen Reader
Read any text that appear on the screen.
Partially sighted individuals must have text information enlarged, or the contrast altered, in order to perceive information.
(CCTV) Closed Curcuit Television magnification system
Magnifies printed material on a monitor
Magnification controls on computer screens
Lets the user choose needed amount of magnification
Although most technology can be used by deaf individuals, some still provide information in audio form only prompting advocacy groups to design initiatives encouraging multiple formats.
FM Amplification Systems
Teachers wear wireless microphone and students with hearing impairments and those with difficulty with audio processing wear recievers that amplify the teachers voice and serve to focus attention.
Strategies for At-Risk Students
Students at risk for school failure does not fit the federal definition of a disability, but their lack of succes in school often parallels the low performance of students with disabilities.
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)
May cause the teaching profession to consider technology tools and resources for these students who struggle to achieve in school.
Table 15.2 in textbook
Matches Resources to the learning difficulties and needs of at-risk students.
Difficulty remembering things to do
(sequence of tasks)
Provide a reminder service
Inability to read or comprehend
at grade level
Provide instructional material with multiple levels
Difficulties in written expression
Offer support for dictation
Difficulties in math computations
Use online calculators
Lack of motivation to engage in
to organize engaging instructional activities that parallel the curriculum
Strategies for Students with Gifts and Talents
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA) 2001 definition of Gifted and Talented:
Students, children, or youth who give evidence of high achievement capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, or leadership capacity, or in specific academic fields, and who need services and activities not ordinarily provided by the school in order to fully develop those capabilities.
Pyryt (2009) Model for assisting gifted students in the regular classroom - Pyryt's 5 P's:
There are numerous ways content acceleration can accommodate gifted students at an appropriate pace. Content acceleration is possible through diagnostic testing followed by prescriptive instruction.
Face-to-face and online courses through The John Hopkins University
Allowing gifted students to develop the ultimate potential of their process skills such as creative thinking, are encouraged through brain-storming techniques and problem-solving approaches.
The Creativity Web
Gifted students have the opportunity to follw their passion when they are given the freedom to think for themselves, producing original knowledge as a professional.
Conducting research on the Internet
Problem-based learning environments
Allowing gifted students multiple ways to showcase their knowledge through products is necessary.
Being a gifted student does not guarantee peer relationships.
Help Broaden Social Opportunities
Robley, M. D., and A. H. Doering. Integrating educational technology into teaching. 6. Prentice Hall, 2012. Print.
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