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Transcript of Particle Accelerators
The LHC - a Proton (and heavy ion) Synchrotron
and what they can do
for medical imaging
Structure at the submicroscopic and molecular scale
Change normal silicon to n-type or p-type by adding donor/acceptor ions
Various techniques - ion implantation one of the most important.
Many implanters in use in industry
Radiotherapy with Xrays is effective
Protons are even more effective, and have less collateral damage
Carbon ions are even better (probably)
Save the planet
Global Warming (=Climate change) is here
To stop burning fossils fuels, must have (some) nuclear
Safety? Long term Waste? Proliferation?
Date historical/archaeological/geological specimens
Isotopic mix of unstable isotopes: Carbon-14 (half life 5700y)
Complementary to photons
Medium Energy Ion Scattering (MEIS)
(medium = ~100 keV)
An accelerated charged particle emits EM radiation
This includes transverse acceleration
Medical images: X rays
electron linac (linear accelerator)
Kill bugs and
Sterilisation of medical equipment through gamma ray exposure
cyclic accelerator with fixed orbit
magnetic fields increase with time, matching increase in particle energy
LHC X ray tube
DIAMOND at RAL
a 3 GeV electron synchroton
EM radiation (IR to Xrays) from bending magnets
Free Electron Laser
Photons emitted from
Photon emitted coherently
from several bends
Photon emitted coherently
from electrons from
Use low energy electron beams to break links in polymers so that they reform with crosslinks between molecules
This is generally done with Sulphur ("vulcanisation")
Use of a sulphur compound rather than raw sulphur can speed up the process
This is called an 'accelerator'. Very misleading.
and similar curing reactions
1) extract carbon
2) accelerate to 2 MeV using DC accelerator (van der Graaf)
3) analyse charge/mass ratios with spectrometer
~ 1 GeV protons
Sector cyclotron: 590 MeV
More isochronous than classical Lawrence cyclotron
Give Gemstones colour
Naturally colourless crystals bombarded with electrons to form colour centres e.g. topaz
What Next (2)
Technology and accelerators
- for drinking (alternative to Chlorine)
- to neutralise wastewater from industry
Daegu dyeing complex, Korea
1 MeV 400 kW electron linac
What next (1)
What comes after the LHC?
Like ILC but 1.5 TeV beams, driven by 'dual beam' RF
A muon Collider?
Two linear colliders,each 15 km long , 250 GeV electrons and positrons
Challenge: making beams very small and then getting them to collide.
Site selected - Kitakami, Japan. Funding?
1.5 TeV muons
Ideal as muon has full energy (like electrons unlike quarks in protons) and synchrotron radiation losses low (like protons unlike electrons)
Drawback - 2 mu sec lifetime
Time dilation to the rescue (?)
A low energy
at Synchrotron energies
The dielectric wall accelerator?
Laser and plasma acceleration??
X rays versus protons: shotgun versus rifle
X rays deposit energy all the way through
Protons target the tumour (Bragg Peak)
Proton Therapy widespread in USA, Japan, Europe
Only one (small, low energy) centre in UK (Liverpool)
Two more now planned (Manchester, London)
Need 230 MeV proton accelerators
plus very precise targeting and dosimetry
Protons (or Helium nuclei)
Rutherford scattering on target nuclei
Probe ~nm of surface
Angle+energy gives target mass
targets in the bulk have less+smeared energy
Rotating target gives crystal structure through channelling and blocking
Applications: surface studies, catalysts, CMOS etc
Manufacture by cyclotron: 11 MeV protons on (enriched) Oxygen-18 in water
Half life 110 minutes
Make Fludeoxyglucose (FDG)
(Glucose with one OH replaced by F)
Inject into patient/guinea pig
FDG looks like glucose, so is transported to parts of the body needing energy.
But it isn't glucose, so it hangs around -
Till the fluorine decays by positron emission
Giving two back to back 511 keV annihilation photons
Which you detect, and use for tomographical reconstruction
Solution: the Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor (ADSR)
- using Thorium as fuel
Off-switch to ensure no criticality incidents (Chernobyl)
Can consume long-lived MA waste so storage only for centuries
Impossible/difficult to weaponise
MYRRHA at Mol, Belgium
are for accelerating particles
University of Huddersfield