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Lecture 5 - Amphibians & Reptiles

amphibian and reptile feeding, metabolism, life history

BriAnne Addison

on 7 July 2015

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Transcript of Lecture 5 - Amphibians & Reptiles

amphibians and reptiles
ectothermy vs endothermy
life history characteristics
feeding and digestion
thermoregulatory setpoints
evolutionary context
amniotes - eggs have amnion to retain moisture
parental care
oviparity, oviviparity, viviparity
plasticity and development (indeterminant growth)
body plans variable
resiliency to adverse conditions (poikilothermy and tolerance versus homeostasis)
body plans
increase NO -> decrease body temp set point
generating heat
mitochondrial density and membrane composition
cardiac output
human - 37C
grey kangaroo - 35.5-37.3C
echidna - 30-32C
chicken - 42C
freshwater crocodile - 29-33C
bearded dragon - 34.3-36.9C
black-headed python - 32C
tree frog - 0.8-6.8C above ambient
poikilothermy versus homeothermy
enzyme activity is adapted to body temperature
increase prostaglandins -> increase body temp
"leaky membranes" create waste which is dissipated as heat
muscle activity generates more heat (shivering)
-> accounts for higher metabolic rates of homeotherms
basking and activity to increase temperature
torpor and estivation to alleviate low temperature effects
limited range of poikilotherms
migration to avoid harsh conditions
adjust heat loss and gain by altering circulation
mediating endogenous and exogenous temperatures
body size and shape
larger animals retain heat better
rounded body shapes retain heat better
heat is dissipated in limbs or through mouth
most amphibians and squamates are insectivorous/carnivorous
metamorphosis includes numerous physiological changes and a switch from herbivory to insectivory for most species
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