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The Civil Conflict of South Sudan

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Monica Reyad

on 21 January 2014

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Transcript of The Civil Conflict of South Sudan

The Civil Conflict of South Sudan
How did the world's youngest country unravel so quickly?
In January of 2011, the people of South Sudan voted in favor towards a referendum of full independence from Sudan
On July 9, 2011, South Sudan become an independent nation, and the world's youngest country
Many thought it would lead to independence and a better life for both North and South Sudan
Fight for oil, border clashes, worsening economic conditions, fleeing refugees, and build up in tension between ethnic groups
Timeline
The Problem
Violence erupted in mid-December,
Salva Kiir accused his former deputy Riek Machar of attempting a coup, a charge Machar has denied.
Conflict has deteriorated into ethnic conflict between Nuer and Dinka tribes, including the battle over the oil
“dissatisfaction with the dividends of independence,”
“a stark discrepancy between the availability of resources and the quality of life for the people”
Next Steps
Ethiopia and pipeline solution
Many peace agreements had been signed by Kiir in promise of peace within South Sudan
2015 elections
Education together with politics
As long as it is corrupted...violence will take no road to end
North-South Peace Deal (2005)
2005 January - North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) ends civil war
2005 July - Former southern rebel leader John Garang is sworn in as first vice-president.
2005 August Salva Kiir Mayardiit takes over presedential role & deadly clashes in the capital between southern Sudanese and northern Arabs.
2005 September - Power-sharing government is formed in Khartoum.
2005 October - Autonomous government is formed in South Sudan
Fragile Peace (2006-2008)
2006 November - Hundreds die in fighting centered on the southern town of Malakal
2007 October - SPLM temporarily suspends participation in national unity government
2008 March - Tensions rise over clashes between an Arab militia and SPLM
Tension over Abeyi & Independence Referendum (2008-2011)
2008 May & June - Intense fighting between northern and southern forces due to oil dispute Salva Kiir and Omar Bashir agree to seek international arbitration to resolve dispute
2009 July - North and south Sudan say they accept ruling by arbitration court in The Hague to eliminate dispute
2009 December – 2011 January - Leaders reach deal on terms of referendum on independence. The people of South Sudan vote in favour of full independence from Sudan.
2011 February - Clashes & Fighting breaks out near Abyei.
2011 March - Government of South Sudan says it is suspending talks with the North, accusing it of plotting a coup.
2011 May & June - North occupies disputed border region of Abyei. Governments of north and south Sudan sign accord to demilitarize the Abyei region and let in an Ethiopian peacekeeping force.

New State Born & International Tensions (2011-2012)
2011 9 July - Independence day.
2011 September - South Sudan's cabinet votes to designate Ramciel - a planned city in Unity State - as the future capital.
2011 October - South Sudan and Sudan agree to set up several committees tasked with resolving their outstanding disputes
2012 January - South Sudan declares a disaster in Jonglei State after some 100,000 flee clashes between rival ethnic groups.
2012 February - Sudan and South Sudan sign non-aggression pact at talks on outstanding secession issues, but Sudan then shuts down the South's oil export pipelines in a dispute over fees. South Sudan halves public spending on all but salaries in consequence.
2012 April - South Sudan troops temporarily occupy the oil field and border town of Heglig as Sudanese warplanes raid the Bentiu area in South Sudan.
2012 May - Sudan pledges to pull its troops out of the border region of Abyei, which is also claimed by South Sudan, as bilateral peace talks resume.
2012 July - Country marks first anniversary amid worsening economic crisis and no let-up in tension with Sudan.

2012-Present
2012 August - Some 200,000 refugees flee into South Sudan to escape fighting between Sudanese army and rebels in Sudan's southern border states.
2012 September - The presidents of Sudan and South Sudan agree trade, oil and security deals after days of talks in Ethiopia.
2013 March - Sudan and South Sudan agree to resume pumping oil after a bitter dispute over fees that saw production shut down more than a year earlier. They also agreed to withdraw troops from their border area to create a demilitarised zone.
2013 July - President Kiir dismisses entire cabinet and Vice-President Riek Machar in a power struggle within the governing Sudan People's Liberation Movement.
2013 December - Hundreds of people die in clashes between rival army factions after President Kiir accuses his former deputy, Riek Machar, of plotting a coup. The fighting worsens between existing tensions of the Dinka and Nuer ethnic groups.
2014 January - Government and rebels agree to attend peace talks in Ethiopia and express confidence in success.

John Garang
• Born into the Dinka ethnic group
• was a Sudanese rebel leader, founder of the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) which fought a 22 year civil war against the northern dominated, Islamist Sudanese Government.
• Was made vice president of Sudan on the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, shortly before his death.
• In 2002 Garang began peace talks with Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir, which culminated in the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement on 9 January 2005. As part of the agreement Garang was made vice president of Sudan.
• On July 30, 2005, a helicopter carrying Garang back from talks with the president of Uganda crashed in the mountains near the border

Omar al Bashir
President of North Sudan
Has a warrant out for his arrest from the International Criminal Court: on five counts of crimes against humanity, two counts of war crimes, and three counts of genocide.
Overseen and held responsible for the civil war between north and south Sudan and the genocide in Darfur, which have resulted in the slaughter of at least 2.5 million people.
Refuses to allow United Nations' peacekeeping force in protecting civilians/supervising the distribution of humanitarian aid, and had claimed that the United Nations and the world community was exaggerating the death toll in Sudan
Salva Kiir
Became the leader of the SPLM and took over Vice Presidential role after John Garang's death
Responsible for independence of South Sudan
First president of South Sudan since it had become an independent nation
Signed agreements with Bashir over oil clashes
Child Soldiers
Child soldiers have been recruited in the "White Army;" Nuer tribe’s militia fighting in Jonglei state, over the last month
Many children have joined the army because their parents cannot afford to support or feed them
Children who are given assistance often return back to the army in order to support their families after food vouchers had run out


Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Article 3:
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
Article 5:
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Article 25: (1)
Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control
Article 23 (3):
Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
War Crimes
outbreak of violence and worsening security and humanitarian situations
resulted in the death, displacement and disruption of livelihoods of thousands of populations
The death toll from the fighting is approaching 10,000, according to the International Crisis Group, while the United Nations says at least 395,000 people have been forced to flee their homes.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Article 3
:
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person
Article 5:

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Article 8:

Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.
Article 13: (1)

Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
(2)

Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.
Article 14: (1)

Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
Article 25: (1)

Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
(2)

Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.
Article 28:

Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.
Causes
Failure to ensure accountability for human rights violations in fighting between Dinka and Nuer in 1990-1991
negative foreign involvement
"no facts on the case"
international humanitarian laws are not being respected, and civilians are not being looked after
The Statistics
51 % poverty rate, 47 % of the population suffering malnutrition, 75 % illiteracy, 75 % with no access to toilets of any kind, and the world's second-highest maternal mortality rate.
Thousands of civilians have been killed, brutally abused and left homeless in just over a month of conflict
summary executions, sexual violence, burning, looting and the use of child soldiers Mass killings, extrajudicial killings, arbitrary detentions and sexual violence
worst human rights violations may constitute war crimes and crimes against humanity.
No refugee camps for civilians
Citations
http://www.nation.co.ke/news/South-Sudan-conflict-fuelled-by-dividends-of-freedom/-/1056/2153636/-/4nfcv2z/-/index.html
http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=46961&Cr=South%20Sudan&Cr1=#.Ut28ohAo7IU
http://www.voanews.com/content/united-nations-says-war-crimes-committed-in-south-sudan/1834130.html
http://www.aljazeera.com/video/africa/2014/01/un-war-crimes-happening-south-sudan-20141180817787607.html
http://www.thestar.com/news/world/2014/01/17/south_sudan_mass_killings_child_soldiers_feed_horrifying_human_rights_disaster_says_un.html
http://www.thestar.com/news/world/2014/01/17/south_sudan_mass_killings_child_soldiers_feed_horrifying_human_rights_disaster_says_un.html
http://www.irinnews.org/report/90430/sudan-southern-child-soldiers-need-more-opportunities
http://www.timeslive.co.za/scitech/2014/01/17/child-soldiers-fighting-in-south-sudan-un
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/south-sudan/10579738/Child-soldiers-fighting-in-South-Sudan-conflict-says-UN.html
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-01-16/south-sudan-central-african-republic-to-face-war-crimes-audit.html
http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/
http://allafrica.com/stories/201401141001.html?page=4
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