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A Fossil in a Modern Age

From the Austrian Empire to Austria-hungary
by

Stefan Wedrac

on 22 February 2018

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Transcript of A Fossil in a Modern Age

A Fossil in a Modern Age
Created by Stefan Wedrac, IES Vienna 2010
1848-1900
Society & Population
Revolution of 1848
social revolution
national revolution
Theatres:
Italy
Hungary
Vienna
bigger cities
liberal revolution
War in Italy
War in Hungary
~1500 imprisoned
~2000 dead
Austrian victories
Siege of Venice
intl. army
~130.000 soldiers
battles until 1849
Russian intervention
"Risorgimento"
"Fratelli d'Italia"
Brothers of Italy,
Italy has awoken,
with Scipio's helmet
binding his head.
Where is Victory?
Let her bow down,[2]
For God has made her
Rome's slave.
Let us join in a cohort,
We are ready to die.[3]
We are ready to die,
Italy has called.
Let us join in a cohort,
We are ready to die.
We are ready to die,
Italy has called!
Italy's struggle for unification
3 wars of independence
1854
Crimean War
conservative restauration - "Neo-Absolutism"
phase of early constitutions
end of the revolution
Sardinian War
1859
FR and Piedmont against Aut
Aut loses Lombardy
Solferino 1859
Henry Dunant
Founder of the Red Cross
"Ausgleich"
The Royal Family - Joy and Sorrow
Maximilian I of Mexico (1832-1867), the emperor's brother
Franz Joseph
1830-1916
Elisabeth in Bayern
1837-1898
Archduke Rudolf 1858-1889, the emperor's son
Austria-Hungary
Common:
Army
Foreign Policy
Finances
"Staatsgrundgesetz"
first constitutional laws
personal freedom
citizenship
freedom of the press
equality before the law
equal rights for all nationalities
freedom of movement
freedom of science
freedom of profession
...
Occupation of Bosnia
French-German War, German Unification
Vienna Stock Exchange crashes, World Exhibition
Before: Laissez-Faire policy
Speculation b/c of World Exhibition
Criminal Activities
Stock company bubble
enormous loss of invested money
Danish War
Occupation of Schleswig-Holstein
Aut, Pru vs. Den
German-German War
Alliance Pru-It vs. Aut
Aut loses the Veneto
Battle of Königgrätz
"small" German solution
Otto von Bismarck
"special case" Vienna
migration
population density
strong middle class
center of capital
center of the court
luxury
national conflict
social conflict
political conflict
Ring Street
Coffe Houses
morbidity
1890-1900
Consolidation of the economy
Radicalization of the nationalities
Reform of the Currency
Income Tax
Income from Tariffs
Lump-sum tax for companies
Battlefield language
"state of posession"
School
Administration
Dominance of the Germans
Domestic politics & parties
smoke of 1848
Conservatism
Liberalism
Social Question/Socialism/Marxism
Nationalism
1859/60
1867
1873
Crash Depression Decline
Socialist Party
Christian-Social Party
National Parties
Court, Aristocracy & Church
economic
political
laissez-faire economy
Josef Wenzel Radetzky von Radetz
Katharina Schratt, the emperor's friend
Nationalities
Acknowledgement 1874
(Islam 1912)
"Age of Revolutions"
"Reichstag" - parliament, voting rights restricted to "intelligence" and wealthy people
also called "founder's time" = economic prosperity
France promises Piedmont support to win the Lombardy (Milan)
Revolution of 1848/49
"Kingdom of Italy" founded in 1861 under the reign of a piedmontese King, Vittorio Emmanuele II
3 pillars of Franz Joseph's rule
1.bureaucracy
2.army
3.church
The Way to Universal Suffrage
1873
1882
Reform 1873:
first direct right to vote for a parliament ("Reichsrat")
only adult male citizens who are a) landowners, b) owners of enterprises or c) and d) inhabitants of cities of the countryside who have a certain education or pay a certain amount of taxes
votes from higher classes have more influence
effectively 6 % of the total population
Reform 1882:
tax amout for right to vote lowered to five gold coins a year
lower middle class now included
1896
Reform 1896:
tax amout for right to vote lowered to four gold coins a year
general class of voters introduced: all men of 24 years or older
1907
Reform 1907:
equal, direct and secret right to vote for all male citizens of 24 or more years introduced
Absolutism
ruler rules absolutely by the grace of god and is the only legislator
political and social order is "god-given"
founding of liberalism
Locke (1689)
Montesquieu (1748)
Rousseau (1762)
life, liberty, property
social contract
+
separation of powers
executive, legislature, judiciary
enlightenment ideas
social contract
equal suffrage, property, education, class-less society
possible form of government
constitutional monarchy, republic
small democracies
USA 1776
France 1789-92, 1830, 1871
Belgium 1830
Austria 1918/19
Italy 1830ff
Germany 1830/32, 1918/19
Russia 1917
Europe 1848
Revolutions
Poland 1830ff
Greece 1821
Spain 1820
Democracy
(20th century)
suicide in 1889
stabbed with a file by an italian anarchist 1898
executed in Querétaro in 1867
Demands:
constitution
freedom of the peasants
national autonomy/independence
better working conditions
in total:
December 2nd 1848: Franz Joseph I follows the abdicated Ferdinand I as Emperor of Austria
Jews in Vienna
shortly before WWI:
180.000
in the city
Diversified Community:
NE-european orthodox Jews
western "assimilated" Jews
oriental & SE-european Jews
Professional Life
:
Middle Ages & Early Modern Period: most professions forbidden
after 1781: more and more professions allowed
1867: equal rights for all citizens: freedom of profession, but for Civil Service catholic religion required (Habsburg religiosity)

Religious Life
:
1781 tolerated by Joseph II.
1852/1868 Acknowledgement of Jewish Community by the state
1890: "Israelite-Law": Official Recognition as a full Religion


Jews
overrepresented
in:
Banking
Commerce
Industry
Printing/Newspaper
Jews
underrepesented
in:
Civil Service
Army
Traditional Trades
Education
1849
1853
1859
1864, 1866
1867
1870/71
1873
1878
Lines of Work of Viennese Millionaires
(Sandgruber, Traumzeit für Millionäre)
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