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Cross Culture Comm
Transcript of Cross Culture Comm
NOOR FARIZAN MOHD RAHIM
NURUL NADIAH SHAEDON
NIK MOHD AMIR NIK DAUD
MUAZZAM MOHD DIN
2010947175 AUSTRALIA CROSS CULTURE MEANING is a field of study that looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds communicate, in similar and different ways among themselves, and how they endeavour to communicate across cultures. BRAZIL MALAYSIAN COMMUNICATION STYLES Malaysian communication styles are characterised by extreme forms of politeness and diplomacy.
Thus communication can, at times, seem overly formal or protocolistic - and this is especially true when carrying bad news or when giving information to superiors. It is often good to spend time going through the social pleasantries before discussing any actual business issues.
Suitable topics of conversation would be family, sport (especially soccer), your impressions of Malaysia, your organisation, future plans etc. Topics to avoid might be politics, religion and ethnic tensions in Malaysia.
'No' is a difficult word and is therefore rarely heard. Malaysians prefer to give bad news in a very circuitous way through the use of 'coded' messages, which may be difficult to pick up on. RUSSIA INTERNATIONAL
COMMUNICATION STYLE Diplomacy and directness,
Literal and coded language,
Reserve and emotion,
Self-promotion and self-deprecation,
Written and spoken word DIPLOMACY AND DIRECTNESS Some cultures put directness before diplomacy whereas other cultures put diplomacy before directness. In those cultures which put directness before diplomacy, the truth is viewed almost as an object. It is important that the truth be made clear, simple and without deviation. Those cultures which put diplomacy before directness will never directly say the truth if they feel that by speaking the truth they risk having a negative emotional impact on other people. This difference of approach can have negative impacts when both approaches meet in a business situation. Direct Cultures include:
Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, USA, Australia
Diplomatic Cultures include:
Japan, India, Korea, UK, Belgium LITERAL AND CODED LANGUAGE Some cultures speak in a more or less literal way – they try to say exactly what they mean at all times and feel that to do otherwise is evasive and inefficient.
Other cultures speak in what is generally referred to as ‘coded’ language and try to soften what they say for fear of offending.
Literal cultures often find dealing with coded cultures problematic as they don’t really understand what is being said, whereas coded cultures often find literal cultures as lacking in linguistic refinement and finesse. Literal Cultures include:
Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, USA, Australia
Coded Cultures include:
Japan, India, Korea, UK, Belgium RESERVE AND EMOTION Calmness and reserve in all business situations is viewed to be an absolute professional necessity in some cultures.
People who seem unable to maintain their professional equilibrium and show their feelings can be viewed with suspicion by more reserved cultures.
People from certain other cultures, however, view the use of emotion in some business situations as a sign of real engagement and interest in the process. Reserved Cultures Include:
UK, Sweden, Netherlands, Japan, India
Emotional Cultures Include:
Italy, Spain, Greece, USA, Saudi Arabia, Brazil
SELF-PROMOTION & SELF-DEPRECATION Certain cultures find it difficult to speak positively about themselves and prefer to understate their abilities and self-deprecate about themselves in general.
Other cultures, however, are much more self-promotional and would find it bizarre to say they were not very good at something when in fact they were skilled in that area. People from cultures which prefer understatement often find colleagues and clients from more self-promotional cultures to be aggressive and arrogant.
People from the more self-promotional cultures will often take on face value the understatement of other cultures – they believe them if they say they have a weakness. Self-deprecating cultures include:
Japan, China, Korea, UK, Finland
Self-promotional cultures include:
USA, Australia, France, Brazil WRITTEN AND SPOKEN WORD Some cultures place far greater emphasis on the importance of written communication between people.
Only when something has been communicated in writing does that issue become a reality Other cultures place much greater emphasis on the value of spoken communication – things are only really believed when they have been communicated by people with whom they have a strong, trusting relationship. Written-word cultures include:
Germany, UK, USA, Sweden, Netherlands
Spoken-word cultures include:
Spain, Italy, Saudi Arabia, India, Brazil DENMARK DEVELOPING INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE the ability to communicate effectively and appropriately with people of other cultures Motivation & Attitude
Tolerance for Ambiguity
Knowledge & Skill Adler , Rosenfeld & Proctor (2004) CANADA 10 GOLDEN RULES Avoid making instant judgements or assumptions about people from different cultures regarding their working style Try to do some research on any culture you will be working with Try to understand how your leadership style might be viewed through the eyes of team members from different cultures – they may view your style as bizarre Remember that not all problems encountered in international situations are the result of cultural differences – the issues could be personality-based, technical or commercial Just because people do things differently in another country does not mean that they are necessarily wrong in their approach – they might be wrong but they are not necessarily wrong. It is as important that you understand your own cultural approach as it is to understand the approach of others. A good idea is a good idea regardless of where it originates – you do not have all the answers Not all ideas from head office are good ideas Not all ideas from head office are bad ideas When communicating with people who are speaking a second language, do not over-estimate their linguistic abilities. Just because they are good at a second language does not mean they are perfect! Teams and organisations that are at ease with themselves and co-operate well across the cultures will prosper in an increasingly global economy. MOTIVATION & ATTITUDE The desire to communicate successfully with strangers is an important start.
People high in willingness to communicate with people from others cultures report a greater numbers of friends from different backgrounds tha those who are less willing to reach out. (Kassing, 1997) TOLERANCE FOR AMBIGUITY Berger (1988), one of the most important concerns facing communications is their desire to reduce uncertaninty about one another.
The basic challenge of communicating is an unfamiliar language. OPEN-MINDEDNESS Ethnocentrism is an attitude that one’s own culture is superior to others.
Ethnocentrism leads to an attitude of prejudice.
The important elements of prejudice is stereotyping KNOWLEDGE & SKILL Mary Jane Collier (1996) found that Latinos were most likely to value relational support and bonding with friends. Euro-Americans valued their friends who met their task-related needs, offered advice, shared information, and had common interests. African Americans was respects for and acceptance of the individual. African Americans was respects for and acceptance of the individual. Kim et al (1996), the ability to “shift gears” and adapt one’s style to the norms of another culture or co-culture is an essential ingredient of communication competence. SUDAN CONCLUSION High and Low Context High context implies that a lot of unspoken information is implicitly transferred during communication. People in a high context culture such as Saudi Arabia tend to place a larger importance on long-term relationships and loyalty and have fewer rules and structure implemented. Low context implies that a lot of information is exchanged explicitly through the message itself and rarely is anything implicit or hidden. People in low context cultures such as the UK tend to have short-term relationships, follow rules and standards closely and are generally very task-oriented. Culture: set of values, beliefs, norms, customs, rules, and codes that socially define groups of people, giving them a sense of commonality