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Transcript of Severe Disabilities
Helping People with Severe Disabilities
Helping People with Severe Disabilities
Individuals who are identified as having severe disabilities may display a variety of primary disabilities. Its hard to find a specific definition of severe disabilities, so below are examples of more general descriptions of severe disabilities.
The federal definition of severe intellectual disabilities includes an IQ of less than 40 and the manifestation of deficits in adaptive behavior, with both areas of deficit originating during the developmental period-before the age of 18
Profound Intellectual Disabilities vary only in the range of the IQ score which is 20 and below.
Profound Intellectual Disabilities
The term severe disability is used in Chapter 7 to refer primarily to individuals who have severe or profound intellectual disabilities. The life supports and educational programs required by these individuals are typically more extensive than those required by individuals with other types of disabilities.
IDEA, the Individual with Disabilities Education Act, is our nation’s special education law. The IDEA guides how states, school districts, and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to more than 6.5 million eligible infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities.
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, Public Law (PL) 107-110, is the nation’s latest general education law. It amends the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) and has brought sweeping changes to our educational systems. The law emphasizes assessment and accountability, and requires states to show Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in raising student achievement. The participation of students with disabilities in large-scale statewide or district wide testing is required
Before there was IDEA, there was the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability. Section 504 of this Act continues to play an important role in education, especially for students with disabilities who may not qualify for special education services under IDEA.
Section 504 from the Rehabilitation Act
Americans with Disabilities Act
Passed by the Congress and signed into law by the President in July 1990, the ADA is the first comprehensive declaration of equality for people with disabilities. The ADA protects the civil rights of people with disabilities in all aspects of employment, in accessing public services such as transportation, and guaranteeing access to public accommodations such as restaurants, stores, hotels and other types of buildings to which the public has access.
Parents and Families
Tips on Parenting
by Katelyn Lerette, Jacqueline Black & Mia Bogyo
Technology is an important component of inclusion for many students with multiple/severe disabilities. Often, students require the use of communication devices that range from communication boards to voice output devices. It is important that teachers understand their forms of communication in order to actively communicate with the student.
•Using adapted materials (large grip pencils)
•Have a peer write for the student
•Have student present material in another form (orally)
•Using a switch to navigate programs
•Using adapted utensils to self-feed
•Peer assists in getting food from lunch line
•Using instruments that can be strapped to the hand or other body part
•Student can hold instrument while peer hits it (drums, cymbals) and vice versa
•If using a recorded piece of music, student can use a switch to turn it on and off for the class
•Use audio books
•Books on the computer (pages turn by activating a switch)
•Peer reads or turns the pages of the book
•Having a peer kick or hit the ball while another peer pushes or assists student along the bases or down the field
•Student can activate stopwatch when peers are being timed in an activity
•Using adaptive materials for different sports (rainspout when bowling)
Using adapted brushes, pencils, markers, or making your own by wrapping tape several times around an item making it thicker and easier to grip
•Peer can cut items and put glue down while student pastes them by pressing them down
•Taping papers to table so they don’t move around when trying to paint, draw, or color
Floor Activities/Table Activities
•Use floor corner sitting chairs (students are at the same level as peers)
Tap into the student’s strengths
Be ready to make modifications
Ask for the program supports or modifications you need to be included in the IEP.
Partial participation can make the difference.
Learn about assisted technology (AT)
Learn about accessible textbooks
Don’t give up on a goal; practice and reinforce
Deal with behavior issues
Make the most of paraprofessionals.
Be involved in the student’s transition planning.
Meet the Change
by Tammy Ryals
by: Debbie Roome and Dorothy Ade
Action/ Awareness Project
TASH is a nonprofit organization based in helping people who are severely disabled to get the resources they need. They pride themselves in equity, opportunity and inclusion for people with severe disabilities.
Sorting the money in the container
The TASH donation collector
Bolay, J. (n.d.). Including Students with Multiple/Severe Disabilities in
the General Education Classroom . Vanderbilt Kennedy Center. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/kennedy_pdfs/TipSheets/tipsheet_ClassroomInclusion.pdf
Disability & Education Laws. (n.d.). National Dissemination Center for
Children with Disabilities. Retrieved December 10, 2013, from http://nichcy.org/laws
The TASH handout
Special Olympics 2012
Both low-tech (communication boards) and high-tech (voice synthesizers) provide individuals with various options for communication.
Hand-held electronic devices are also now widely used in instructional settings and for guiding students through school and vocational activities.
CD-ROM that has a series of video clips of different work environments. Allows individuals with severe disabilities to see work settings and the various tasks that might be involved at each site. Allows the individual to identify preferred work environments and preferred tasks when presented with options
Learn about each of your child’s disabilities. The more you know, the more you can help yourself and your child.
Love and play with your child. Treat your son or daughter as you would a child without disabilities. Take your child places, read together, have fun.
Know your child’s needs, play to his or her strengths.
Don’t let the labels get you down. Learn to understand and be comfortable with using each one. This will help you be an advocate for your child and his or her unique gifts and challenges.
Encourage your child to be independent. For example, help your son or daughter learn self-care skills such as getting dressed, grooming, and doing laundry.
Team with the professionals working with your child.
Practice and reinforce. Give lots of hands-on opportunities for learning and practice. Give feedback immediately. Repeat the learning task in different settings.
Give your child chores. Keep in mind his or her age, mental capacity, attention span, and abilities.
Find out what your child is learning at school. Look for ways to apply it at home.
Look for social opportunities in the community (such as Scouts) or activities offered through the department of sports and leisure. Joining in and taking part will help your child develop social skills and have fun.
Talk with other parents whose children have disabilities
The right of parents to receive a complete explanation of all the procedural safeguards available under IDEA and the procedures in the state for presenting complaints
Confidentiality and the right of parents to inspect and review the educational records of their child
The right of parents to participate in meetings related to the identification, evaluation, and placement of their child, and the provision of FAPE (a free appropriate public education) to their child
The right of parents to obtain an independent educational evaluation (IEE) of their child
The right of parents to receive “prior written notice” on matters relating to the identification, evaluation, or placement of their child, and the provision of FAPE to their child
The right of parents to give or deny their consent before the school may take certain action with respect to their child
The right of parents to disagree with decisions made by the school system on those issues
The right of parents and schools to use IDEA’s mechanisms for resolving disputes, including the right to appeal determinations
Functional Curriculum: a curriculum that emphasizes preparation for life and that includes skills that will be used by the student in home, school, or work environments.
Environmental Analysis: visiting the settings in which the student must learn to function
Community Based Instruction: conducting learning experiences in community settings.
between levels of school
from segregated to integrated settings
from school to work
"Simply making the effort to help someone face these challenges and helping them to deal with life's realities is a responsibility we should all take seriously."
Joseph Jone's Story
"I am against abortion except in certain cases. Leanne's life has been useful and productive and if she died today i would say she has had a good and happy life which far outwighs the suffering she has gone through in different way"