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AP World History Review

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Josh kint

on 24 April 2015

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Transcript of AP World History Review

AP World History Review
By: Josh Kint & Ryan Wong
Fo Josh
Fo Shizzle
Disclaimer: The
location of the following slides has nothing to do with historical accuracy. These slides were positioned solely to mess with Josh. Thank you.
The End
Obligatory Dedication:
Period 1:
Beginning to c. 600 BCE
Technological and Environmental Transformations
Key Concept 1.1:
Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth
A: Humans used fire in new ways: to aid hunting and foraging, to protect against predators, and to adapt to cold environments.
Fire has been undoubtedly one of the biggest aids to the development of man. With the control of fire, humans could now cook previously frozen food, improving its nutrition and digestibility, consequently improving their chances of survival. [1] Additionally, fire was used in "treating animal hides for clothing and hardening wooden weapons and tools." [2] Fire increased the durability of clothing and weapons, two items critical to human survival in a harsh environment. As an added bonus, fire's scorching heat repelled Ice Age predators and freezing temperatures outside while warming human bodies inside. It is clear that had humans not learned to harness fire, they would never have advanced further than their East African birthplace.
[1]: http://history-world.org/human_origins.htm
[2]: http://history-world.org/paleolithic2.htm
B: Humans developed a wider range of tools specially adapted to different environments, from tropics to tundra.
Humans migrated to radically different climates than the East African climate they originated from. Each of these climates contained unique dangers that humans would have to adapt to. The solution was simple: tools. Tools could be used to hunt animals and gather plants for food. Humans made strong tools from bone, stone, and wood by chipping and sharpening flakes of hard material. [1] These tools could be used as projectiles, skinners, and more. Another tool was made from a seemingly innocuous item: string. With string, more food could be caught effortlessly. Nets and snares allowed humans to consume a wider variety of food, like fish and small mammals. [2] The use of tools increased the amount and variety of food that could be consumed, leading to a relatively increased population density.
[1]: http://history-world.org/paleolithic2.htm
[2]: http://history-world.org/human_origins.htm
C: Economic structures focused on small kinship groups of hunting-foraging bands that could make what they needed to survive. However, not all groups were self-sufficient; they exchanged people, ideas, and goods.
From the start, humans realized it was to their mutual advantage to band together in groups. Early humans hunted and foraged for food wherever they went. Unfortunately, foraging cannot reasonably support a growing, sedentary population, so human bands were often small and nomadic, possessing. [1] The members of said bands all concentrated on finding food to survive, using tools to ensure their own survival. Bands were usually egalitarian as each member was crucial to the other members' survival. [2] Band members were married to other bands to establish alliances, and traded gifts and ideas for relatively useful tools. [3] Here lay the beginnings of social organization.
[1]: http://www.kingsacademy.com/mhodges/05_World-Cultures/01_Primitive-Society/01a_Paleolithic-Society-2.htm
[2]: http://gossamerstrands.com/Hist100/lecture1.htm
[3]: http://teachers.lakesideschool.org/us/english/perez/documents/CoontzChapter3InventionofMarriage.pdf
Key Concept 1.2:
The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies
A: Possibly as a response to climatic change, permanent agricultural villages emerged first in the lands of the eastern Mediterranean. Agriculture emerged at different times in Mesopotamia, the Nile River Valley and Sub-Saharan Africa, the Indus River Valley, the Yellow River or Huang He Valley, Papua New Guinea, Mesoamerica, and the Andes.
The end of the Ice Age brought a warmer climate to much of the world. Unfortunately, many of the large animals the nomads had relied on disappeared with the frost. This drastic environmental change forced many nomads to settle down and produce their own food. Agriculture was independently discovered in Southwest and Southeast Asia, China, and the Americas, where it diffused throughout the world. [1] However, the Fertile Crescent is thought to be the birthplace of agriculture. [2] One common thread is that agriculture sprung up in fertile river valleys. The worldwide inception of agriculture has brought unprecedented levels of human interaction with the environment.
[2]: http://www.icarda.org/fertile-crescent
[1]: http://www.slideshare.net/darkyla/neolithic-revolution
B: Pastoralism developed at various sites in the grasslands of Afro-Eurasia.
Pastoralism, or animal herding, is a counterpart to agriculture in which nomads herded and followed their animals. Pastoral nomads were completely dependent on their animals for food, clothing, and more; as such, they constantly migrated to grasslands to keep their animals sufficiently fed. Pastoralists were often forced to take up their lifestyle when agricultural farmers forced them onto weak land unfit for farming. As such, many pastoralists fought farmers over grazing lands. However, pastoral and agricultural people were codependent on each other to continue their lifestyles. Although they fought, they were never really antagonists, but rather, two sects trying to secure their livelihoods. [1]
[1]: http://gossamerstrands.com/Hist100/lecture2.htm
C: Different groups or animals were domesticated in the various core regions, depending
on available local flora and fauna.
Farmers quickly discovered that their food production capabilities were limited by the variety of plants surrounding them. Local animals would feed on strains of plant unique to their location, so only a few species were initially available to domesticate. Some regions contained extremely hardy and nutritious plants (like flax and cereal), while others did not. Farmers who produced high-energy foods (like lentils, wheat, and chickpeas [1]) saw consistent surpluses, owing to the hardiness and compact nutrition of these plants. Over time, these starchy foods would lead to a steadily growing sedentary population. [2]
[1]: http://archaeology.about.com/od/historyofagriculture/tp/The-Eight-Founder-Crops-and-the-Origins-of-Agriculture.htm
[2]: http://www.slideshare.net/darkyla/neolithic-revolution
D: Agricultural communities had to work cooperatively to clear land and create the water
control systems needed for crop production.
With the advent of farming, new problems sprung up. With the amount of work required to clear, farm, and maintain land, it was clear that agriculture could not be a one man job. Humans banded together once again to clear a patch of land, plant crops on said land, and construct an irrigation system. Canals, dikes, and other systems were necessary to regulate healthy and safe plant growth, as floods could obliterate a month's crop in days. [1] Humans had never cooperated to achieve a common goal on such wide a scale before the rise of agriculture.
[1]: http://www.rivervalleycivilizations.com/neolithic.php
E: These agricultural practices drastically impacted environmental diversity. Pastoralists also affected the environment by grazing large numbers of animals on fragile grasslands, leading to erosion when overgrazed.
Agriculture came with its many downsides as well. Plowing land disrupts the soil, and natural vegetation is stripped away in favor of food crops. Those actions can lead to erosion as there is nothing to anchor the land, and flooding as there is nothing to hold back or absorb the water. [1] Pastoralism contributed to this destruction as well: with pastoralism, the herd simply leaves when it has consumed all of the vegetation in the area, contributing to desertification. The stripped vegetation in both cases would take decades to grow back. Agriculture greatly benefited the humans, but deeply hurt the land.
[1]: http://www.slideshare.net/darkyla/neolithic-revolution
F: Pastoralism and agriculture led to more reliable and abundant food supplies, which increased the population.
Foraging for food is not a sustainable way of life due to the unreliability of the hunted animals; animals will not keep appearing in the same location in the same quantities. Due to this, population numbers were kept small; there was simply not enough food to go around. With agriculture and pastoralism, however, food can be effectively produced and controlled. Agriculture ensures a steady supply of food, and pastoralism ensures a life supported by animal product. This increase in food supply inevitably leads to a surplus, which can be used to support a growing population. [1]
[1]: http://www.slideshare.net/darkyla/neolithic-revolution
G: Surpluses of food and other goods led to specialization of labor, including new classes of artisans and warriors, and the development of elites.
Agricultural surpluses meant that people no longer had to work their entire lives in the pursuit of the day's food. They could become merchants who sold goods, or priests who attained favor from agricultural and fertility deities. [1] Many became warriors to protect their food supplies, and some even led their own states. [2] Priests and political leaders joined forces to create an elite ruling class. Instead of making their own products, people paid specialized workers (like craftsmen) to make them. [3] This was the first glimmer of social stratification.
[1]: http://www.rivervalleycivilizations.com/neolithic.php
[2]: http://www.regentsprep.org/regents/global/themes/change/neo.cfm
[3]: http://history-world.org/neolithic1.htm
H: Technological innovations led to improvements in agricultural production, trade, and transportation.
Social differentiation (itself caused by agricultural surpluses) eventually led to the creation of complex and inventive technology. This greatly improved efficiency in nearly every facet in Neolithic life. Some examples of these technologies are:
Agricultural surpluses required containers to hold them. Clay vessels were created to hold such items; thus, pottery was born. Pottery served a functional and artistic purpose as the pots were decorated with creative and unique patterns. [1] The invention of the potter's wheel allowed the creation of pottery with more durable walls. [2]
[1]: http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/east-asian-art/chinese-neolithic.htm
[2]: http://www.slideshare.net/darkyla/neolithic-revolution
Any agricultural innovation is guaranteed to increase food production. The plow is a device that turns a large area of soil to prepare it for seeding. Farmers used animals to drive these plows, further reducing work, increasing the population, and furthering social differentiation. [1]
[1]: http://www.slideshare.net/darkyla/neolithic-revolution
Woven Textiles
Period III
Key concept 3.1
Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks

Period 3 (despite the lack of connection between Afro-Eurasia and the Americas) is the first 'global period.' Considering both the length (C. 600 C.E & C. 1450) and the major events and civilizations/empires that form throughout this period. With in this period alone, the major trade routes brought resources, ideas, and religions to major regions, allowing for the Islamic renaissance to influence the european renaissance, enabling gunpowder to stretch from Asia to Europe, and further enabling the Global connectivity of the Afro-Eurasian Continent.
With woven textiles, humans could now make textiles, like clothes and rugs, using agricultural materials, like cotton and flax. A new labor class was born. Later, the loom was invented, further increasing the rate of textile production. Textile weaving is yet another activity that increased labor specialization. [2]
A- Existing trade routes promoted the growth of powerful new trading cities.
[2]: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab11#1458
1. Silk road network
2. Mediterranean Network
3. The Indian ocean Basins Network
Metalworking is a concept that is undoubtedly as important (and slow to diffuse) as agriculture. Metal could be used to create stronger and sharper weapons and tools. Humans first used copper in metallurgy, but a stronger alloy, bronze, was created by mixing copper with tin. "By 3000 BCE, it ushered in the Bronze Age." [1] Metallurgy saved great amounts of time and labor in farming (through cutting and skinning) and defense (sharp cuts meant clean kills). Moreover, metal tools and weapons were durable and easily retained their shape and strength.
Wheels and Wheeled Vehicles
All Important new trade cities
The Swahili city-states
The wheel is the simplest, yet most groundbreaking, invention of Neolithic times. The wheel drastically improved transportation time and labor. The wheel allowed people, like farmers and merchants, to transport large loads simply and effectively. The wheel greatly enhanced trade in these two ways. [1]
[1]: http://www.slideshare.net/darkyla/neolithic-revolution
C-Luxury Goods
B: Development new trade cities
I: In both pastoralist and agrarian societies, elite groups accumulated wealth, creating more hierarchical social structures and promoting patriarchal forms of social organization.
As community wealth increased, social stratification grew with it. As has been stated before, religious and political leaders formed a new elite class. This class gained a disproportionate amount of wealth and power, leading to social inequality. [1] Another prevalent, albeit uncertain type of inequality was gender inequality. As male elites dominated the social hierarchy, women suffered in this early patriarchy. They did not share equal social rights with men, and many were limited to specific labor classes. [2]
The silk roads main focus throughout the classical era was the transportation of luxury items such as silk, from Asia to Europe. The post-classical age being the first 'global period' brought the transportation of technology, ideals, and diseases. The Silk road brought gunpowder and paper from Asia to Europe.
The Islamic Abbasid caliphate reinvigorated the silk road after its decline with the Han and Roman empires, Under the Abbasid caliphate Sharia law protected merchants, and with this protections merchants of all kinds began to travel along the silk roads again. A major boost to the roads was the rise of the mongol empire. After conquering the Abbasid caliphate in 1258 the Mongol Empire, or Pax Mongolica brought the almost the entirety of the silk road under one rule, similar to the Muslims before them the mongols placed trade highly, and under the mongol code of law or Yassa merchants were highly protected. The mongols also utilized the roads for many other means, which helped maintain the silk roads. But the mongol interest in trade, may have helped bring luxury resources and new technologies, such as paper or gunpowder to Europe, it also brought the Black plague to europe which decimated both Europe, as well as crippling the mongols.
[1]: http://history-world.org/neolithic1.htm
[2]: http://www.slideshare.net/darkyla/neolithic-revolution
Key Concept 1.3:
The Development of Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies
Just finished Key Concept
1.2, will search sources
then leave
A: Core and foundational civilizations developed in a variety of geographical and environmental settings where agriculture flourished: Mesopotamia in the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys, Egypt in the Nile River Valley, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in the Indus River Valley, Shang in the Yellow River or Huang He Valley, Olmecs in Mesoamerica, and Chavín in Andean South America.
Similar to the Silk road network the fall of the Han and Roman empires, declined the Mediterranean network as well. But the continuation of east Rome as the Byzantine empire and the expansion of the caliphate into Africa reinvigorated the trade. The Caliphates brought Sharia law, and its protectiveness of the Merchants. Gems flowed from India, along with olive oil and Glass ware. Constantinople's key location between Europe and Asia enabled it to become a major trade Hub as many silk road routes ended in the black sea, were goods were loaded onto ships, sailed through the Bosporus and into the Mediterranean.
Islam And the Caliphates
Pre-Islamic Arabia
The Birth of Islam
The Caliphates
Though these early civilizations differed in many ways, all of them were located near the valleys of rivers, as their respective rivers' silt deposits made for excellent agricultural grounds. Additionally, river floods would provide new plants with a near-limitless supply of water. [1] These two resources were key in jump-starting a new civilization.
[1]: http://www.rivervalleycivilizations.com
B: States were powerful new systems of rule that mobilized surplus labor and resources over large areas. Early states were often led by a ruler whose source of power was believed to be divine or had divine support and/or who was supported by the military.
New states were often plagued with built-in social inequality in the form of a social hierarchy; although it helped the people through its creation of public works, it protected the privileges of the elite at all costs. Surplus produced by peasant labor financed the lavish lives of the elite. State officials often persuaded people to obey by force. State leaders presented themselves as divine, or being descended from the gods to bring order. One example is China's concept of the king's title of "Son of Heaven". Rulers used their claims of divine power to keep their massive power and prestige. Ultimately, military and religious forces were combined in a successful effort to keep the elites in power. [1]
Before Islam (with the exception of Yemen) there was no political structure within the arabian peninsula. The arabs recognized no authority other than their tribal gods and chiefs.
-Bedouin Tribes
-Kinship important
-Some rights women
-constant Inter-clan Warfare, often for oases, as they provided much needed water.
-Post-classical Arabia
-Byzantine &persian client kingdoms in area
-Active long distant trade
-Practiced polytheistic religion
Desert & mountains with few oases,
-Yemen Fertile.
Muhammad's beginnings
Full name- Muhammad ibn Abdullah
-Born to Meccan merchant family
-In early life Clan struggle led to his being orphaned
- lived with his uncle- Tribal leader.
-Married Wealthy widow Khadija- also merchant
-Took up merchant career - at 30
-At 40 he began having visions
-Archangel Michael brought these visions to him
-One true God, Allah (the god)
-Allah would bring judgement (rapture-esque) upon the world

The Qur'an, and other holy texts
Muhammad's revelations
Compiled after his death
the islamic holy book
The Hadiths
Sayings apparently from Muhammed

The Hijra (The Flight)
Muhammad's Teachings
offended Many
-The ruling elite of Mecca
-Wealthy Merchants
-Many Bedouin who still practiced Polytheistic religions
-Due to this persecution Muhammad and his followers fled to Medina.
The Umma
-Organized Community within Medina
-Led commercial venture
-occasionally raided Meccan caravans
-Helped Disenfranchised

All of Mrs. Lee's power points are extremely helpful
'Seal of the prophets
believed himself to be the last prophet of Allah
Conquest of Arabia
The 5 pillars of Islam
1.Shadah- "There Is no God but God and Muhammad is his prophet"
2.Salat- Ritual prayer. All Muslims face Mecca when praying and this is done five times a day. On Fridays they preform congregational service.
3.Zakat- Charity or Alms giving, A muslim must give a portion of his/her possessions (roughly 2.5% of their net worth), in order to help to community specifically those in the most need
4.Sawm- Fasting/Self-control during the Holy month of Ramadan.
5.Hajj- Pilgrimage to Mecca.
[1] Strayer, Robert W. Ways of the World: a Brief Global History. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2009. Print.
C: As states grew and competed for land and resources, the more favorable situated - including the Hittites, who had access to iron - had greater access to resources, produced more surplus food, and experienced growing populations. These states were able to undertake territorial expansion and conquer surrounding states.
"The Five Pillars Of Islam." The Five Pillars Of Islam. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2015.
4. Trans-Saharan Network
The natural resources of Earth are not divided equally amongst the continents. Therefore, it was only by pure luck that some civilizations were established in geographically advantageous areas. The Hittites are one such civilization. They had an advantage in being the first civilization to learn to process iron [1] (an easily worked, yet significantly harder metal than bronze[2]) in a blast furnace. These new iron weapons allowed the Hittites to annihilate any who stood in their way and expand their civilization.
[1]: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab66
[2]: http://www.chemistryexplained.com/elements/C-K/Iron.html
magnetic compass
The magnetic compass enhanced merchants ability to plan a route
Latene sails
enabled sailors to tack against the wind, enabling trade to move faster.
Enabled sailors to sail by the stars.
Ideas of the network
exotic animals and animal skins
various metals
The Goods of the Network
D: Early regions of state expansion or empire building
were Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and the Nile Valley.
A summary of the network
The Network Under the Caliphates
The Goods of the Network
The goods of the network
The Networks effects
A few cities in Mesopotamia managed to conquer other surrounding states to form small empires. However, they would usually disintegrate after a few generations, owing to the difficulty of keeping a large and diverse amount of people united. A few empires, like Babylonia, managed to keep their holdings for quite some time. Babylonia is the name of the region of Southern Mesopotamia that was controlled by a dynasty ruling from the city of Babylon. [1] Ancient Egypt is another early empire. During its New Kingdom Age, it held its own against such formidable rivals as the Hyksos. [2]
[1]: http://www.timemaps.com/civilization/Ancient-Mesopotamia#overview
[2]: http://www.pbs.org/empires/egypt/newkingdom/index.html
E: Pastoralists were often the developers and disseminators of new weapons and modes of transportation that transformed warfare in agrarian civilizations.
As pastoral nomads encountered civilizations, they spread their military technology. These technologies greatly helped civilizations. Some examples of these are:
Iron Weapons
When nomads encountered the Hittites, they learned of the secret methods they used to produce iron. The nomads spread this knowledge to others, who refined the process. Soon, the Hittites were fighting losing battles against their own weapons.
Compound Bows
The first compound bows were used by steppe nomads for hunting. They spread this new weapon to civilizations they came in contact with, revolutionizing ranged warfare by popularizing small yet powerful ranged weapons.
Pax Mongolica
Fine China
Bronze ornaments
Gold, Skins, Etc.
woolen/Flax fabrics
Tea, Rice
Other valuble technologies
semi-precious stones
Rhino horns
"Goods of the Silk Road." - History of the Caravan Trade. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2015.

Middle East
Precious stones
"The Pax Mongolica." Pax Mongolica. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2015.
"The Pax Mongolia." Genghis Khan and the Pax Mongolia. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2015.

The Pax Mongolica or Mongol peace refers to the height of the Mongol empire or empires. The height of the Mongol Empire directly coincided with the height of the silk road. This was in part due to the Mongols protectiveness of merchants and artisans, and how safe and well maintained the silk road was inside of their lands.
The chariot is another technology pastoral nomads spread to others. Although pastoral nomads did not invent the chariot, they improved it by making it lighter and using horses to pull it. The chariot was the product of hundreds of years of work (to domesticate the animals and make bronze for the chariot). Due to this, the chariot was mostly limited to the aristocracy. With the chariot, nomads could easily spread their ideas far and wide. This new and faster way of spreading ideas played a great role in the expansion of trade routes. [1]
[1]: https://apworldrhs12.wikispaces.com/1.3.2-++Pastoral+Weapons
Horseback Riding
Pastoral nomads also domesticated the horse. Their horses were bred for war, and could travel for long distances on harder lands. The spread of these species coincided perfectly with the increasing scope of human conflict. [1]
The islamic renaissance-
often reffered to as the Islamic golden age.
Brought Europe paper
laid foundations European renaissance
Cities began centers scientific/Philosophical development
due to this development, trade was highly protected, as Muhammad was a merchant
Brought many of the Goods from the silk
road to the rest of Europe.
Also helped Facilitate trade from N. africa to Europe
semi-rare stones
F: Early civilizations developed monumental architecture and urban planning.
With more people from which to extract resources, civilizations amassed a large amount of resources. With these resources, states could build complex, massive projects that serve as testaments to their might.
Religious Structures
The Islamic Golden Age
The Formation of the Caliphates
The close connections between religion and the state meant the creation of massive religious architecture. Sumerians in Mesopotamia built large ziggurats, representations of the homes of the gods. Many gave offerings and prayed to the gods who "lived" in these ziggurats. [1] Egyptians built massive pyramids to honor the deceased royalty, who they viewed as divine. They believed that when a king died, his spirit, or "ka" still resided within his corpse. They mummified the corpse and buried his belongings and essentials with him, so his spirit could be properly cared for. In the end, these pyramids were to be a monument to the king's ambition and divinity. [2]
[1]: http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-asia/great-ziggurat-ur-001767
[2]: http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/the-egyptian-pyramids
Public Works
State leaders did not forget that the people had to be cared for, as well. Keeping this in mind, they created public works, like water and transportation systems. Ancient Egyptians constructed dikes to regulate water levels of the Nile River, preventing flooding by controlling the environment. Ancient Indians created a road system of straight, paved streets. Incredibly, they also devised a sewage system by constructing a series of clay pipes that led from houses to the sewers. The sewer waste eventually drained into waterways. It was not a perfect system, but it kept residential areas clean and well-maintained. Ancient Chinese constructed the Great Wall of China, one long and massive formation built to keep northern nomads and other enemies out of Chinese civilization. All of these public works improved the communities they were near. They also made people happy, and as such, were tools used to gain favor with the populace and legitimize the ruling government. [1]
[1]: https://prezi.com/4obvfh_gzons/ancient-civilizations/
G: Elites, both political and religious, promoted arts and artisans. Some examples include sculpture, painting, wall decorations, and elaborate weaving.
Not all of a civilization's resources went to architecture. In fact, a sizable amount of it went to support the arts. Elites (who could afford the craft) patronized artisans, who created works of art characteristic of the civilizations they lived in. In this way, much of what we know of ancient civilizations comes from their art: their values, their aspirations, their viewpoints, and more.
H: Systems of record keeping arose independently in all early civilizations and subsequently were diffused.
With the advent of long-distance trade (itself caused by a need for resources and the rise of cities), a form of record keeping was needed to communicate with said cities and keep track of resources, traded and retained. [1] As a result, civilizations created unique writing systems, and spread them through interacting with other civilizations. What began as a trade tool spread into culture and order alike, in the form of stories and laws.
[1]: http://www.ancient.eu/writing/
The Sumerians, located in Mesopotamia, were the first people to use writing. Their writing system was known as cuneiform, a pictorial language written by pressing wedge marks onto a tablet of wet clay. Other societies, like the Persians and Akkadians, adapted cuneiform as their writing system. This diffusion of language is a great example of inter-societal interaction. [2]
[2]: http://www.encyclopediaofauthentichinduism.org/articles/12_early_civilizations.htm
Egyptians initially styled their writing system after the Sumerians, making each character a pictorial representation. Hieroglyphics were initially phonetic, but with no vowels, it was not possible to know the correct pronunciation. Later on, hieroglyphics were replaced with a cursive text called "demotic". [1]
[1]: http://www.encyclopediaofauthentichinduism.org/articles/12_early_civilizations.htm
Quipu is an unconventional communication system that uses knotted string to express concepts, like numbers. Quipu is a "positional ten-based numeric system"; a number's position determines its multiplier (like ten or one hundred). Quipu was used in the Inca Empire for accounting purposes, like keeping financial records. There is wide controversy regarding evidence that quipu is a literary system due to the owner's reluctance to allow wide study of his evidence. The full uses of quipu remain unknown and obscure, due to its lack of clarity leading to many different interpretations. [2]
[2]: http://www.ancientscripts.com/quipu.html
I: States developed legal codes, including the Code of Hammurabi, that reflected existing hierarchies and facilitated the rule of governments over people.
As states grew bigger, they needed a set of laws to unify their peoples. One famous set of laws is the Code of Hammurabi, written by Hammurabi, a well-known ruler of the Babylonian Empire. He compiled a universal set of laws and inscribed them on imposing stone tablets to symbolize that the laws were "set in stone". His rules emphasized "eye for an eye" punishments, but gave different punishments for different classes for the same crime. For example, one law states, "If a man has destroyed the eye of a man of the gentleman class, they shall destroy his eye .... If he has destroyed the eye of a commoner ... he shall pay one mina of silver. If he has destroyed the eye of a gentleman's slave ... he shall pay half the slave's price." In this way, the Code of Hammurabi legitimized the unequal social hierarchy that was prevalent in society. [1]
Due to the fact that a large portion of the silk roads ended into the black sea, and many of the ships had to pass This made Constantinople a flourishing trade city, which in turn made the Venetian merchants very jealous. this lead to their direction towards the byzantine empire in the 4th crusade.
[1]: http://www.ushistory.org/civ/4c.asp
"Maps of the Silk Road." The Silk Road Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2015.

Network Summary
J: New religious beliefs developed in this period continued to have strong influences in later periods.
The Vedic Religion
This Network Dominated the Post-Classical Period. Compared to the other networks, The indian ocean network had the largest volume of trade, and the amount of cultures and people. This network revolved on constant predictably of the monsoon winds, which enabled ease of travel, and excellent predictability of goods.
Vedic religion started when Aryan nomads migrated to the Indian Subcontinent. They brought with them the Vedas, a collection of hymns. They were passed down orally before being written down. The Vedas praised the gods, who required sacrifice. During the Later Vedic Period, the priestly class came under fire as many rituals ceased to work. Some decided to depart from the Vedic life and live an ascetic life. Their teachings and viewpoints were written in various texts, The Upanishads. These texts were integral to the formation of Hinduism. [1]
[1]: http://www.ancient.eu/The_Vedas/
Hebrew Monotheism
Hebrew monotheism stated that there was only one true god; all others were false. According to the Hebrews, God is good and interested in His children. As such, he wishes for people to treat each other decently. Hebrew monotheism's influence can be seen in "universal religions", like Christianity and Islam, for both of them also practice monotheism. [1]
[1]: https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/mono.html#8
Zoroastrianism is a relatively small monotheistic religion. It was the official religion of Ancient Persia for a time. [2] Founded by Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism places heavy emphasis on ethics and morality. Followers are expected to make good and moral decisions and walk a righteous path. [3]
[2]: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/zoroastrian/ataglance/glance.shtml
[3]: http://tenets.zoroastrianism.com/deen33i.html
K: Trade expanded throughout this period from local to regional and trans-regional, with civilizations exchanging goods, cultural ideas, and technology.
As states grew, civilizations often expanded close and closer to others. The scale of trade grew wider as more civilizations traded with each other.
Between Egypt and Nubia
As Egypt grew richer, it traded with Nubia to gain luxury goods, like slaves, gold, and ivory. They traded essentials, like wheat, in exchange for these coveted goods. Trade became a tool of cultural diffusion as Nubia adopted Egyptian language and religion. [1]
Between Mesopotamia and Indus Valley
[1]: http://www.phschool.com/atschool/california/webcodes/itext_samples/ancient/iText/products/0-13-133475-1/ch4/ch4_s3_1.html
Craftsmen of the Indus Valley crafted terracotta pots, cotton cloth, and beads. These items would be traded in Mesopotamia. The best evidence linking Indus Valley/Mesopotamia trade is the existence of hundreds of seals, many of them in Mesopotamia. These seals were made by impressing a design onto wet clay. The specifics of this trans-regional trade are still uncertain. [2]
[2]: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/indus_valley/trade_and_travel/
L: Social and gender hierarchies intensified as states expanded and cities multiplied.
Growing civilizations reinforced their societies' stratification. Social classes became more specialized and complex, and the patriarchy gained more power.
M: Literature was also a reflection of culture.
Literature allowed stories that were previously orally told to be recorded, spreading it across a wide demographic. Literature revels a culture's unique takes on life and morality; because of this, no two stories are the same.
Epic of Gilgamesh
Originating with the Sumerians, the Epic of Gilgamesh is a tale of Gilgamesh, the reformed king of Uruk, and his quest for immortality after his best friend, Enkidu, dies. One major theme is the inevitability of death. Gilgamesh loses his best friend, and is denied immortality because of his partly human lineage. The Sumerians had an unusually pessimistic view of human mortality, and this shows in the Epic of Gilgamesh.
[1]: http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/gilgamesh/themes.html
Rig Veda
The Rig-Veda is the oldest book of the Vedas collection. As it is an important religious text, the Rig-Veda has played a huge role in the inclusive nature of Hinduism: "Ekam sat vipra bahudha vadanti" (Truth is one; sages call it many names.) [1] Its writings have influenced many Hinduists to forsake division and unite to find the supreme truth.
[1] (Rigveda 1:164:46)
Book of the Dead
The Book of the Dead "is the common name for the ancient Egyptian funerary texts known as The Book of Coming [or Going] Forth By Day." [2] Written on papyrus, it described all of the trials a newly deceased person needed to pass to be happy in the afterlife. Since polytheistic religion was a major part of Egyptian life, it makes sense that Egyptians would make a guidebook for following their religion, even after death.
[2]: http://www.thenazareneway.com/index_egyptain_book_dead.htm
Period 2:
Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies
c. 600 BCE to c. 600 CE
Key Concept 2.1:
The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions
A: The association of monotheism with Judaism was further developed with the codification of the Hebrew Scriptures, which also reflected the influence of Mesopotamian cultural and legal traditions. The Assyrian, Babylonian, and Roman empires conquered various Jewish states at different points in time. These conquests contributed to the growth of Jewish diasporic communities around the Mediterranean and Middle East.
As Judaism grew, its teachings, laws, and moral codes were written down into one compilation: the Torah. Written in Hebrew, it is the "central and most important document of Judaism and has been used by Jews through the ages." [1] The Torah gave a powerful sense of identity and community to the Jews. Even when Jews were scattered throughout the Middle East and Europe during the Diaspora, the Torah allowed them to maintain their way of life and identity. [2]
[1]: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/judaism/texts/torah.shtml
[2]: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/Diaspora.html
B: The core beliefs outlined in the Sanskrit scriptures formed the basis of the Vedic religions - later known as Hinduism - which contributed to the development of the social and political roles of a caste system and in the importance of multiple manifestations of Brahma to promote teachings about reincarnation.
The Vedic Age gave birth to a defiant piece of literature called the Upanishads, whose concepts formed the base of modern Hinduism. Meaning "sitting near", the name itself implies learning from a guru who has realized the esoteric truths of the universe. [1] Many basic tenets of Hinduism stem from the Upanishads' teachings. Some of them include[2]:

Samsara: In every human being there resides a spirit, the atman. During the process of samsara, the atman is continuously reborn in a new body. The goal of Hinduism is to stop this process and unite with the Brahman (often separated into Vishnu and Shiva, a life giver and taker respectively).

Karma: These are human-performed actions that impact dharma. Good or bad karma carries onto the next life and beyond. Hinduists believe that man is ultimately responsible for his own actions.

Dharma: This is a Hinduist's "life duty", unique to each caste. Dharma allows an atman to move up a caste and avoid samsara; as such, it is necessary for everyone to fulfill their dharma.
[1]: http://hinduism.about.com/od/scripturesepics/a/upanishads.htm
[2]: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/hinduism/concepts/concepts_1.shtml#h4

This network was widely influenced
by islam, the Ummayad Caliphates conquest of
africa enabeled trade and islam to spread below
the blistering heat of the sahara.

Gold, salt, copper, slaves.
C: The core beliefs about desire, suffering, and the search for enlightenment preached by the historic Buddha and recorded by his followers into sutras and other scriptures were, in part, a reaction to the Vedic beliefs and rituals dominant in South Asia. Buddhism changed over time as it spread throughout Asia - first through the support of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, and then through the efforts of missionaries and merchants, and the establishment of educational institutions to promote its core teachings.
Silk- China
Spices- Asia
Precious metal and gems- Asia and africa
slaves-Africa, and majority other regions
exotic animals-africa
Caravan orginization
Buddhism originally derived from Hinduism, but grew to become its own world religion. Buddhism began when a man named Siddhartha Gautama saw worldly suffering and renounced his riches and privilege to comprehend the truth of the universe. While meditating under a tree, he discovered the truth, which he spread as the basic tenets of Buddhism:

The Four Noble Truths: 1 - All the world is suffering. 2 - Suffering is caused by desire. 3 - Suffering may be removed by removing desire. 4 - Desire can be removed by following the Eightfold Path (a series of corrective thinking steps that must be achieved to ultimately end personal suffering and achieve enlightenment).

Note that while Hinduism embraced the caste system, Buddhism believed people from all walks of life could achieve enlightenment.

Ashoka was a Mauryan emperor who fully supported Buddhism, and was even a Buddhist himself. He spread Buddhism throughout his realm and vouched for its use in other countries.

Carravanseri (caravansary) Dictionary definition- an Inn surrounding a court were travelers rested
Camel sadles- a camel's sadel

[1]: http://www.buddhamind.info/leftside/under/buddha/4truths.htm
Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. <http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/caravansary>.

[2]: http://www.pbs.org/edens/thailand/buddhism.htm
[3]: http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/dharmadata/fdd9.htm
"Picture." Twanight. N.p., n.d. Web. <twanight.org>.
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