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Reverse Osmosis

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Alice Wong

on 15 May 2014

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Transcript of Reverse Osmosis

Figure 1. Water Droplet Cartoon. Adapted from “Stock Photography:
Cartoon Water Droplet,” Monika Beitlova,
. Retrieved May 12, 2014 from http:/ /www.dreamstime.com/stock-photography-cartoon-water-drop-vector-character-image35055432. Copyright 2014 dreamstime.com.
Reverse Osmosis Song Lyrics
[Verse 1:]
Reverse osmosis is here to stay
it filters water everyday
its uses a membrane to separate
soooooooooooooooo get ready to sayyyyy

reverse osmosis
pressurized water in a tank
reverse osmosis
number 1 in purification rank
reverse osmosis
either household or industrialized
reverse osmosis
its on the rise

[Verse 2:]
here comes distillation talking this and that, yeah
reverse osmosis won't hold back yeah
well i should warn you, its the best, yeah
no offense to you all the rest
Here’s why


A process that forces water (in a high concentration) through a fine membrane to get rid of dissolved minerals/ solutes (less concentrated solution)
What is reverse osmosis?
How does it work?
very small pore sizes - designed to separate ions from each other
Separation is based on : removal of solutes (based on size and charge)
Slow yield rates
2 main types of membranes:
Cellulose acetate membranes
Polyamide membranes
Calibration of Membrane
Cellulose acetate membranes
Pressures in Reverse Osmosis
Important note:

*Water pressure affects both quality and quantity of the treated water produced.
the higher the pressure, the more treated water produced and the better the quality will be
Substances That are Not Filtered
Definition Alert!
Total dissolved solids
Membrane material
Membrane Fouling
Factors that affect the process
Membrane in Reverse Osmosis is semi- permeable

Allows certain substances to pass through it but not others, especially allows the passage of a solvent (water) but not of certain solutes (some dissolved particles in the water).

Substances that are Filtered
Reverse Osmosis
By: Vivian & Devyani
Total Dissolved solids

Example of the function of a semi- permeable membrane
Often manufacture rated at 80 psi supply pressure
Private water systems- 30 -40 psi ( water production is half of manufacturer's rated capacity)
House hold systems 25- 50 psi pressure-

Volatile gases
Some organic substances (low molecular weight)
other VOCs
Not Filtered:
VOCs - Volatile Organic Chemicals. VOCs are synthetic chemicals dissolved in water—such as insecticides or herbicides—which vaporize at low temperatures.
dissolved salts
organic molecules
85 to 98 per cent of total dissolved solids
95% mineral removal
99.9% heavy metal removal.

comparison of reverse osmosis membranes to micro filtration (MF) and ultra filtration (UF)
Particles that are filtered by the RO membrane
A higher concentration of dissolved solids
Produces lower quality results unless met with a higher pressure
Suitable ranges are a limiting factor
(ie for household RO units=1500 to 2000 ppm dissolved solid)
Booster pump may be needed
Membrane Fouling
higher flux- smaller area of membrane is needed
resistant to small concentrations of chlorine- free of bacteria
produce water with residual chlorine to further prevent growth of bacteria
bacterial growth in woodlands can destroy the cellulose acetate material
limited pH range (4-7.5)

Polyamide membranes
can be used at higher temperature (35 C) than the cellulose acetate (30 C)
cannot tolerate any chlorine
wide pH range (4-11) .

Figure 2. Reverse Osmosis Cartoon. Adapted from “Vector - reverse osmosis
use the membrane to act like an extremely fine filter to create drinking water from contaminated water,”
. Retrieved May 8, 2014 from http:/ /www.123rf.com/photo_25250290_reverse-osmosis-use-the-membrane-to-act-like-an-extremely-fine-filter-to-create-drinking-water-from-.html. Copyright 2005-2014 by 123RF.
Figure 3. Reverse Osmosis Pressure. Adapted from “Reverse Osmosis- Water Purification
System,” 2012, kanti pal,
My Own Thoughts.
Retrieved May 12, 2014 from http:/ /mrinalkantipal.blogspot.ca /2012/11/reverse-osmosis-water-purification.html.
Clogging may occur due to
bacterial slimes
hard water scale
Figure 4. thinking Face. Adapted from
“Unleashed speaks... on Valentine's Day,” 2013, The Review Board. Retrieved May 12, 2014 from http:/ / theunleashedreviewboard.wordpress.com/2013/02/. Copyright 2012 by The Review Board.
Can be prevented by
avoiding bacteria contaminated water
softening water over 50 ppm
filtering out iron & sediment
disinfecting by chlorine, formaldehyde, iodine or peracetic acid.
1748- Jean Antoine Nollet on of the first scientists that noticed water diffusion in a membrane
In 1906 Bechold. First made an ultra filter membrane (0.01 micron size).
1940’s- researchers were interested in finding ways in which pure water could be extracted from salt water
1959- at UCLA Samuel Yuster and his students Sidney Loeb and Srinivasa Sourirajan produced a functional synthetic RO membrane

Figure 5. Dictionary. Adapted
from “Dictionary Clip Art,” Illustrations Of. Retrieved May 12, 2014 from http: www.illustrationsof.com /1094759-royalty-free-dictionary-clipart-illustration. Copyright 2014 by BNP Design Studio.
Recycling of harmful waste water
desalination of water
industrial use
Other Uses
Figure 6. RO particles that are filtered. Adapted from “About Reverse Osmosis,”
Koch Membrane Systems
. Retrieved May 8, 2014 from
http:/ / www.kochmembrane.com/Learning-Center/Technologies/What-is-Reverse-Osmosis.aspx. Copyright 2014 by Koch Membrane Systems.
US government spend 4 billion to further develop the process
1960 head of the Saline Water Conversion Laboratory, Joseph W. McCutchan lead group using the new membrane
1970's- Commercially available to produce water for home water purification
US NASA = first to use reverse osmosis
Aircraft carriers & submarines
Water purification plants
Where its used
Figure 7. Types of Filtration. Adapted from “ Reverse Osmosis and RO membranes,”
. Retrieved May 6, 2014 from http:/ /www.reverseosmosis chemicals.com/reverse-osmosis-ro-membranes. Copyright 2013 Reverse Osmosis Chemicals International.
Figure 8. RO membrane. Adapted from “Reverse Osmosis and RO
Retrieved May 6, 2014 from http:/ /www.reverseosmosis chemicals.com/reverse-osmosis-ro-membranes. Copyright 2013 Reverse Osmosis Chemicals International.

Figure 9. Cellulose acetate membrane. Adapted from
“Cellulose acetate membrane filters,”
Advantec MFS Inc
. Retrieved May 13, 2014 from http:/ /www.advantecmfs.com/filtration/membranes /mb_ca.shtml. Copyright 2001-2011 Advantec MFS, Inc.
Desalination of water
-Water filterations plants
-Small sized units (ie camping filters)
Figure 10. RO membrane Fouling. Adapted from “Physiological
properties of defined mono- and mixed culture biofilms associated with membrane biofouling,” Florian Beyer,
Wageningen UR
. Retrieved May 13, 2014 from http:/ /www.wageningenur.nl/en/show/Physiological-properties-of-defined-mono-and-mixed-culture-biofilms-associated-with-membrane-biofouling-1.htm.

Figure 11. History of Reverse Osmosis. Adapted from “Water Warriors,”
Anne Burk, 2006,
UCLA Magazine
. Retrieved May 6, 2014 from http:/ /magazine.ucla.edu/features/water/index1.html. Copyright 2014 by UC Regents.
less expensive and more energy- efficient than distillation units
average modern reverse osmosis plant needs six kilowatt-hours of electricity to desalinate one cubic meter of water
Commercial viability
Figure 12. Reverse osmosis and osmosis. Adapted from “Distillation System Design,”
Retrieved May 13, 2014 from http:/ /www.hitachi.com/environment/showcase/solution/ industrial/desalination_plant.html. Copyright 1994-2014 Hitachi, Ltd.
Optimum water temperature 25°C
Cellulose acetate membranes 5°C - 30°C
Cellulose triacetate membranes 5°C - 35°C
As the temperature drops below 5°C, the capacity is reduced to less than one half.
Figure 13. Maple Syrup. Adapted
from “Maple Syrup: The Conspiracy Don't be fooled by the imitators,” Chelsea Rossetti, 2004,
New York University
. Retrieved May 13, 2014 from https:/ /files.nyu.edu/cer312/public/.
Now for the videoooooooooooo.....
Figure 14. Milk and Cow Picture. Adapted from “Show Me the Whey: Concentrates vs Isolates vs Hydrolysates,” Monica Mollica, 2012,
Sports Nutrition Insider
. Retrieved May 12, 2014 from http:/ /sportsnutritioninsider. insidefitnessmag.com/3771/show-me-the-whey-concentrates-vs-isolates-vs-hydrolysates.
Figure 15. Bottled Water. Adapted
from “Facts about Bottled Water,” Chrispy Paul, 2012,
The Way I See It.
Retrieved May 10, 2014 from http:/ /chrispypaul.blogspot. ca/2012/04 /facts-about-bottled-water.html.
Figure 14. Wine bottle. Adapted
from “National Drink Wine Day,” admin, 2011,
National Drink Wine Day.
Retrieved May 12, 2014 from http:/ /national drinkwineday.org/.
Figure 15. Chemical Structure of ethanol.
Adapted from “File:Ethanol flat structure.png,” 2013,
Wikimedia Commons.
Retrieved May 12, 2014 from http:/ /commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/File:Ethanol_flat_structure.png. Copyright 2014 from Wikimedia Commons Ltd.
Figure 16. Money sign. Adapted from “Stock photo:
Gold coins Dollar sign Clipart,”
. Retrieved May 12, 2014 from http:/ /www.dreamstime.com/stock -photo-gold-coins-dollar-sign-clipart-image2638170. Copyright 2014 by Madartists.

The Reverse Osmosis Song
You may now applaud

Question Time!
for more information: http:/ /www.nimbuswatersystems.com/about-us
*Coffee filter Example
*Prototype Example
Full transcript