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Animalia Project

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by

Nahyan Ali

on 28 October 2012

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Transcript of Animalia Project

Animalia Kingdom Nutrition Porifera
feed by trapping food in the water as it passes through
the internal chambers of
their bodies. Cnidarians
swim and capture prey by using stinging tentacles
Food is then digested in the body cavity Platyhelminthes
are mostly parasitic, except for the turbellarians.
The parasitic ones attach to a host's organ and absorb nutrients directly
turbellarians are carnivorous Annelids
can be carnivorous,
filter feeders, predators
they can feed on vegetation. Mollusca
second most diverse animal phylum
vicious suction, drilling and poison darting
algal scraping and filter feeding Anthropods
carnivorous, feeding on smaller anthropods
they can be scavengers and decomposers
They can feed on plants and nectar. Echindermata
predators, starfish will feed on slow-moving molluscs or barnacles.
Echindermata can eat coral
they can be scavengers Chordata
have mouth pieces and digestive systems.
They eat dead organisms and live organisms
they are hypertrophic. Animalia Porifera Cnidarians Platyhelminthes Annelids Mollusca Anthropods Echindermata Chordata Poriferas are commonly referred to as sponges. They are multicellular organism. Sponges do not have nervous, digestive or circulatory systems. Animals found exclusively in aquatic and mostly marine environments. Commonly known as flatworms Invertebrate animals Commonly called ringed worms "Segmented worms" Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction . Internal External Mollusca, Echinodermata, Arthropoda When gametes combine inside the female body ex. Porifera, Cnidera, Annelid Alternating some species alternate between sexual and asexual reproduction.
ex. flatworms Movement Porifera Cnidarians Platyhelminthes Annelids Mollusca Anthropods Echinodermata Chordata Do not move Most do not move in the sense of moving from one area to another. 
Only move when they use stinging tentacles around their mouth opening to capture a prey.
Medusa moves with currents or by body contraction. Flat worms move by series of muscles. use the jointed feet to move. have a muscular foot used for movement. have tube feet that allows them to crawl or attach to other moving organisms. move in many ways, using arms and legs and wings.
Snakes make wave motions with their body.
Birds can usually fly, and fish have swim bladder; they can sink or rise depending on the amount of air and water in it. have hundreds of tiny legs that help them move while others move like snakes using muscle contractions. Special Characteristics Porifera Platyhelminthes Annelids Molusca Arthropoda Echinodermata assymetrical body, lack tissue
body structure for filter feeding
three main layers in their body structure; outer layer of flattened epidermal cells (pinacocytes), 2nd semi-fluid matrix (amoebocytes), inner layer of flageated collar cells (choanocytes). -Three body walls
-Epidermis (outer layer), mesoglea (middle layer), gastrodermis (inner layer)
-body cavity which is called gastrovascular cavity. Biotechnology -The application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing or production of materials by animals or aquatic species to provide goods and services.
-Eg. Generation of transgenic animals or fish; animals or fish with one or more genes introduced by human intervention by using gene knockout technology to generate animals in which a specific gene which has been inactivated is reactivated.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer produces nearly identical animals (clone) or an infertile species.AKA Dolly the sheep who was famously cloned Transgenic: transgenic livestock and aquatic species have been generated with increased growth rates, enhanced lean muscle mass, resistance to disease or improved use of dietary phosphorus to lessen the environmental impacts of animal manure. Poultry, swine, goats and cattle have been produces to generate large quantities of human proteins in eggs, milk, blood or urine with the goal of using these products as human pharmaceuticals (enzymes, clotting factors, albumine and antibodies). The success rate is less than TEN percent. Gene Knockout Technology: "knocking out" or inactivating a specific gene, it creates a possible source of replacement organs for humans. The process of transplanting cells, tissues or organs from one species to another is referred to as "xenotransplatation" where currently the pig is the major animal being used towards humans. Other examples of knockout technology in animals include inactivation of the prion-related peptide gene that may generate animals resistant to diseases associated with prions. (Bovine spongiform encephalopathy [BSE]" Mad cow disease", Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease also referred to as the human form of mad cow disease) Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer:
producing multiple copies of animals that are nearly identical copies of other animals that produce high quantities of milk or have some other desirable trait. -Has a post anal tail and pharyngeal or gill at some point in their life.
-Has a ventral heart, with blood vessels and closed circulatory system.
-Has a complete digestive system which means they have a different mouth and anus.
-Has an endoskeleton made out of either bone or cartilage. yeah i know but cool fact ms. Rattan might like. she might not have seen it since she's done this course so many times. interesting to think that ours are depicted to be this colorful but nowhere close since we had to change genes in mice. I do have to go to bed though my phone will alert me of an e mail. if something urgent comes up i'll probably be able to come check things. I'm sure she'll let us present in the afternoon if we need to tweak things. Chordata -They are acoelomates with three layers of cells.
-Body is flat and they don`t have body cavity.
-Digestive tract is incomplete which means they don’t have mouth only oral opening directly into pharynx and no true stomach structures.
-Has simple nervous system with a brain-like concentration of cells, including an eyespot at the end of the head. ex. chordata -Segmented worms.
-Their body has more than two cell layers, tissues, and organs.
-Body cavity is coelom and often divided by internal septa.
-Body possesses a gut with mouth and anus. Also possesses three separate sections, a prosomium, a trunk and a pygidium.
-Annelids have a nervous system with an anterior nerve ring, ganglia and ventral nerve chord. -Have bilateral symmetry, three layers of cells, a coelom, and two body openings.
-Have soft bodies that are protected by hard shells.
-A mollusc`s body contains organ systems, including digestive,
circulatory, respiratory, excretory, reproductive, and nervous systems. -Has a segmented body and is arranged into regions
called tagmata.
-They have bilateral symmetry.
-Their nervous system is dorsal and the circulatory system is open and ventral. -Marine animals with radial symmetry, spiny endoskeletons and tube feet.
-Has a water-vascular system, which is a system of closed tubes that includes the tube feet. Sources "Animal Testing for Medical Research." Debatewise. Company Number: 06318701,
2012. Web. 17 Jul 2012. <http://debatewise.org/debates/286-animal-testing-for-medical-research>.

"animals used in traditional medicine." . N.p., 2008. Web. 17 Jul 2012.
<http://www.internationalanimalnet.org/?q=issues/medicine>.

Canadian Federation of Humaine Societies, . "Medical Testing." Medical testing.
Canadian Federation of Humaine Societies, n.d. Web. 17 Jul 2012. <http://cfhs.ca/research/medical_testing/>.

Jenna, Dunlop, et al. Biology 11. Canada : McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2010

Klappenbach, L.. "Basic Cnidarian Anatomy - Cnidarian Anatomy and Structure."
Cnidarian characteristics. N.p., 2012. Web. 17 Jul 2012. <http://animals.about.com/od/cnidarians/ss/cnidarians.htm>.

Murray, J.. "Genetically Modified Animals." Brain waving. Brainwaving.com, 2010.
Web. 17 Jul 2012. <http://www.brainwaving.com/2010/07/28/genetically-modified-animals/>.

"Phylum Platyhelminthes." Platyhelminthes(Acoelomates). N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Jul
2012. <http://www.hbwbiology.net/taxonomy-platyhelminthes.htm>.

"Phylum Porifera: Sea Sponge Characteristics, Reproducution and More! 89." . N.p.,
2011. Web. 17 Jul 2012. <http://apstumbo.hubpages.com/hub/Phylum-Porifera-Sea-Sponge-Characteristics>.

Ramel, G.. "The Phylum Annelida." Earthlife web chapters. Earthlife, 2010. Web. 17
Jul 2012. <http://www.earthlife.net/inverts/annelida.html>. Cnidarians
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