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Changing British Attitudes

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Mai Scherbinsky

on 24 October 2013

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Transcript of Changing British Attitudes

The Road to Canadian Confederation
Need For Rail Links
• In 1850, there were only a 106 kilometres of track in British North America. In comparison there 14 484 kilometres of track in the United States.
• Between 1850 and 1867, 3570 kilometres of track were added in the colonies.
• In 1853, a railway line was completed from the Saint Lawrence to the ocean at Portland, Maine.
• More railways were added to help with trading in the colonies.

Why issue led to confederation

• A railway line between the colonies was essential for trade and defence.
• If Canada was attacked by the United States, the British troops could be rush to Halifax, but the Saint Lawrence River would be blocked.

Real vs. Exaggerated Fear / Issue? Why?

Yes, because they wished to improve upon land-based transportation the Atlantic coast colonies of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Also to a less extent Price Edward Island and New Newfoundland.

How Confederation would help alleviate the problem?

• British soldiers came from England to Canada and to the United States by train. But without the train it will take a long time for the British soldiers to get to the United States.

Threat Of American Takeover
round info: 1864 twenty five southern soldiers made their way into Canada. Robed banks set some homes on fire. The North won the war in 1865 the Canadians really began to worry. Was between 1861-1865. Why issue led to confederation? This led to confederation to make a change in British attitudes. A renewed fear of an American invasion. The impending loss of free trade, political stalemate in the Canada’s. Finally for the promise (and financial debts) of a dawning age of rail. Real vs. exaggerated fear/issue? Why?: The Canadians were over exaggerating that the U.S will takeover, the U.S clearly stated that they will not takeover they are two separate countries and don’t want to be one. How confederation would help alleviate the problem? Confederation would help alleviate the problem because it would make both countries (Canada and U.S) have their say of what they think. Important information:-More than a million men fought in the war.-Two percent of the population more than 620,000 died in it.
Back when Canada was still a colony of Britain, Britain decided to issue a free trade policy. This drove Canadians insane, because they no longer could get money for trading. The colonies decided to place tariffs, which are taxes, on all the goods coming in to the colony to gain money. This then drove the British mad, because they had to pay the colonies to give them goods. The British attitudes slowly went from supportive, to angry, and wanting to push the colonies away.

Exactly how did the issue lead to confederation?

Britain eventually stopped supporting the colonies entirely, thanks to a group called the Little Englanders. They believed that the colonies were a great burden on Britain, and should sever all contacts with Britain, so they wouldn't have to spend money on them anymore. While the Canadians were making a profit with all their tariffs, the British was loosing money, so they wanted to break away from the colonies. When Canada went to approach Britain about independence, Britain was more than ready to release its political hold on the colonies. They were not pleased with the colonies anymore.

Was this a real, or exaggerated issue?

This was most definitely a real issue, because Canada was becoming too reliant on Britain, their imported goods, and their money. Why would Britain support a country that was becoming more independent every single day? It would only cause them trouble. Canada was becoming way more of a hassle because of their tariffs, rebellions, and their demand to become an independent nation.

How would confederation alleviate the problem?

Britain considered the colonies very time consuming, and expensive. They had decided that there was no need for them anymore. They no longer provided them with a stable income, that would support them. Independence would solve many money involved issues. On top of all this, Canada also wanted to have a stable government by uniting the existing provinces. Britain could stop putting money into Canada, and Canada could have a very stable government. Neither would have to deal with each others problems.
Fenian Raids
Why issue led to Confederation?
Fun Fact
The Fenian had a marching song that was used during battle:

"Many battles have been won, along with the boys in blue. And we'll go and capture Canada for we've got nothing else to do."
Real vs. Exaggerated Fear/Issue? Why?
How Confederation would help alleviate the problem?
By: Hossein 8-1
The cost of shipping one tonne of wheat to liver pool in 1849

From Chicago by way of Montreal $13.75

From Chicago by way of new york $10.50
Britain allowed wheat and and flour from british North America colonies to enter Britain with a very low tax (called preference). But Americans wanting to send their wheat and flour to Britain had to pay much higher tax the british north american were just booming with business.
Why issues led to confederation ?
Britain was putting an end to the preference because there was going to be a free trade. Also Britain was allowing goods from any country to market. The canadians had invested a lot of money into the trade. They then built a canal system and flour mill to grind American wheat so it could reach Britain.
Real vs. exaggerated fear / issue ? why?
Yes this is real because it costs more to
send it from Chicago to Montreal than
Chicago to New york.

How confederation would help alleviate the problem?
They (the british were upset with u.s. ) because of the support during the civil war. Then the u.s. announced that it intended an end to the reciprocity treaty.
Trouble With Trade
Changing British Attitudes
This is a picture of the Fenians attacking Canadian troops at
Who were the Fenians?
The Fenian were a brotherhood group founded in 1858 USA, by John O'Mahony and Micheal Doheny. Their group was originally from Ireland and the reason they bonded was because Ireland was under Britian's control and they wanted to free it. It would be difficult to attack Britian, but it would be easy to take Canada as a hostage until Britian frees Ireland. The Fenian attacked many parts of upper Canada, but only succeeded in one battle. On June 2, 1866, near Niagara Frontier, Fenian troops were able to defeat Canadian forces at Ridgeway and were able to quickly flee back to the USA. They had spread terror across Canada and it was time something was done about it. Finally in 1871 (after confederation), the Fenians were permanently stopped.
Before Confederation the Fenians kept on attacking Canada to get back at Britian.
Without cooperation, the colonies were not able to resist the Fenians.
The several Fenian attacks had terrified the Canadians. It was time something was done about it.
Uniting was one way that would help resist the Fenian attacks.
John A. Macdonald wanted the colonies to unite and he used this issue as an argument.
This issue was not exaggerated, it was real. The Fenian (secret organization) were plotting to attack Canada and take it hostage. Ireland was under Britian's control and the Fenians wanted to free it, that was their reason for attack. They attacked several times and were able to capture Fort Erie. Also they succeeded in defeating Canadian forces at Ridgeway. Fear of the Fenians led to the colonies thinking more about uniting.
Uniting Colonies would help because it would mean more people to be soldiers and more brains thinking about what to do.
Without bonding, the colonies would have a less chance of resisting the Fenian attacks.
John A. Macdonald used this arguement for union of the colonies. He said "A united country would better be able to resist such invasions. It is time that Canadians thought more seriously about their defence."
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