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The Story of Ireland

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Sabine Baier

on 13 December 2013

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Transcript of The Story of Ireland

The Story of Ireland
Age of Invasions
First Settlers
The Celts
Saint Patrick & Missionaries
Monasteries
Age of Conquest
Age of Revolution
Age of Union
Age of Nations
"Ireland was shaped by waves of migration, invasions and a powerful neighbour."

First settlers 8,000 BC from Europe
Celts = cultural groups from Europe & Britain

55 BC the Romans invaded Ireland
Christianity became state religion
Trade centres emerged
Newgrange
Oldest building in Ireland
Burial site
Build before the pyramides of Gizeh and stonehenge

build up different tribes
had social organisation - hierarchy with kings
distinctive art
linked to the rest of the world with trade
Saint Patrick:
Welshman
Irish slave - later missionary
Mission "a single faith for a single nation"

Missionaries:
spread the christian message
Christianity became a trend among the kingdoms
centre
of intellectual & artistic life
midpoint of education
area around:
densely populated
various markets
buzzling places
monks
- translation of religious & legal texts into Gaelic and Latin
Book of Invasions
- first written story of Ireland
The Celts
In the middle of 12th century -> invasion in Ireland

Dermot
– the King of Leinster
=>attacked and plundered Kildare
=>provincial kings united against him
Dermot fled seeking for support

Strongbow -
Dermot's main supporter
=>succeeded to the throne in 1171 after Dermot's death
The Vikings
general elections in GB -> Asquith needed coalition partner to win majority in parliament

Irish Nationalist Redmond would support Asquith, if GB would grant Home-Rule
-> caused defiance amongst people in Ulster
1914: HR imposed


“The Pale”
=> the area around Dublin => only region under English control

origins in Norway
destroyed & plundered monasteries
settled at the east coast - build Dublin, formed port cities e.g. Cork
converted to Christianity, got into politics
huge trading networks, biggest slave market
Ireland became very multicultural
small group of intellectual radicals from Republican Brotherhood plotted a strike on General Post Office and Dublin Castle
rebels were arrested and executed
-> seen as act of martyrium
1348, in late July

Black Plague in port of Howth
ravaged Anglo-Normans’ towns and ports
the English Lords fled
Henry VIII killed all the male of Fitzgerald’s family
1536 – introduced Reformation into Ireland (a Protestant country)
1541 – declared himself King of Ireland

Brian Boru
first national hero
icon of native resistance
ruled over Irish people and Vikings equally
was decapitated in the battle of Dublin
Elisabeth I
( from 17 November 1558 till the death)
=>subdued whole Ireland except Ulster

King James 1st planted thousands of settlers in Ulster -> intention: creating a protestant land
Problem of settlement: still too many Gaelic natives on the lands -> settlers could not create a protestant land
Plantation was rescued by Scottish protestants -> fled to Ulster because of religious persecution
The Irish started to rebel against the
protestant parliament.
-> coup failed
turned on the Protestants
civil war erupted
lasted for 7 years
Ireland in the 1650s
King Charles 1st was defeated and executed
Cromwell emerged as commander of the army
they burned down houses
destroyed infrastructure of the country
drove people out of their home
Act of Settlement was passed in London (1652)
Catholic nobility lost their estates and were exiled to poor regions
Irish nobility was banished
Protestant ruling class was installed across the country
Prince William of Orange
protestant leader of the Dutch republic
Parliament wanted to restore the protestant monarchy (catholic king at that time) -> offered Prince William the thrown
King James 2nd (catholic king) fled to France
raised an army in France
the Battle of Boyne: James was defeated by King William
In 1800
restriction of Catholics by penal laws
emigration to America
period of reform in Ireland -> people gained voting rights
sectarian secret societies were formed in order to help Catholics
"the United Irishmen"
were inspired by the French Revolution
wanted to break the link to Britain
one of the founders: Theobald Wolfe Tone
The Orange Order
Theobald Wolfe Tone
Protestant troops were formed
the voice of the Protestants
loyal to monarchy

-> aimed at a political union between Catholics and Protestants
fled to revolutionary France to seek military help for an Irish revolution
15,000 French troops sailed to Ireland
no fight (bad weather, decision of commanders)
no co-ordinated rebellion in Ireland
-> government tried to break the "United Irishmen"
-> crackdown was ordered
-> many united Irish leaders were arrested
-> committed suicide
The revolution had ended the hopes of the united Catholics and Protestants.
"Act of Union" 1801
reform thought to end problems in Ireland
uniting England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland --> "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland"
aims: full catholic emancipation & full political rights for Catholics --> didn't happen!
regional parliaments abolished - entire UK ruled from London
Daniel O'Connell
19th century
brought Catholic Church to Irish politics
mobilized people to campaign for emancipation
1st Catholic in an protestant parliament
repeal campaign --> not leave British Empire but have an Irish parliament were Catholics hold power
O'Connell failed
Strongbow

“The Marriage of Irish Princess Aoife of Leinster with the Norman Richard de Clare (Strongbow)”
Henry VIII
Fritzgerald's Family
In the 1560s in Europe
=> the Catholic Church began
Catholic Reformation or Counter-Reformation

24 August 1571
–> St. Bartholomew’s Day –> Massacre


Hugh O’Deill and Hugh O’Donell

the chieftains of Ulster
allied in
1595
against Elisabeth I
August
1598
– the battle of the yellow Ford
=> victory
Hugh O’Donell

1601
O’Neill asked King Phillip of Spain for help => landed in the wrong part of Ireland => the war was lost
King Phillip of Spain
The Great Famine
"potato blight"
Prime Minister Russell:
"
Saving the starving is not job of the government!"

Charles Trevelyan:

"God had sent the Famine to teach the selfish, perverse and urbulent Irish a lesson."

"If you relieve the Irish too generously they would not learn a lessen and the same thing was going to happen again."
1845-1850
came from Western Europe (Germany, Belgium, Scotland - it was the worst in Ireland!)
people in towns were better off - other food resources
Reverent Richard Townsend --> humanitarian campaigner
he traveled to London; told them about horror of Irish Famine
millions died of starvation and disease


emigration to America
--> East Coast
"coffin ships" = overcrowded, poorly build British sailing ships;
time of arrival --> very poor!
great political organization --> became driving force of New York`s politics
emigration continued until 1900

1918: Sinn Féin,
Collins&De Valera
General elections -> Sinn Féin (nationalists) won majority
leaders: Éamon de Valera + Michael Collins want to set up an Irish parliament
1919: IRA campaign -> armed group of Sinn Féin
Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) - "The Fenians"
1858
"new revolution"
members in Ireland, England and America
aim:
an independent Irish Republic - separation from GB
prepared to use violence
had to stay secret - anyone suspected of being involved --> arrested!
sent money from America to Ireland
Dermot's daughter Aoife was promised to Strongbow after helping him to get back his throne
1919-1924: Irish War of Indepence, IRA campaigns, Anglo-Irish Treaty
1919-1921: Irish War of Independence
-> guerrilla war against GB
republicans vs unionists
ruthless killings, violence, atrocities
1921: Anglo-Irish Treaty
lead to partition of Ireland
=> establishment of Irish Free State and Northern Ireland; granted Home Rule, but allies with GB
Collins in favour of treaty; de Valera against -> became bitter enemies
1922: Collins assassinated
led to
Civil War 1922-23
-> pro- vs anti-Treaty forces
1923: war drove GB out of Ireland
-> result:
Irish Free State
=> conservative, rural, Catholic society, fundamental desire for stability; de Valera Prime Minister
Nothern Ireland
=> Catholics were discriminated against, exclusion, jobs lost, etc; James Craig Ulster Prime Minister
yet, Catholics economically better off in NI
religion = definition of identity
1879
founder: Michael Davitt
president:
Charles Parnell
"Three F's": Fair rent, Fixed tenure, free sale of the right of occupancy
reform unsuccessful!
Irish Land League
William Gladstone
William Gladstone - British - Prime Minister of "The United Kingdom of GB & Ireland"
1881
LAND ACT
offered Irish tenants security from eviction & a means of controlling their rent
Parnell & Gladstone
1885
Home Rule Ireland
method of repaying the Irish for cruelty of the past
1886 a
Home Rule Bill
was defeated
riots in Belfast --> didn't want Home Rule!
one more try bringing Home Rule 1889 - sex scandal Parnell --> population dropped!
Parnell died
Age of political tightens was over: O'Connell & Parnell dead!
Gaelic Athletic Association
rejected English games --> Irish games like Gaelic football, hurling, etc.
one of the most important organizations in Irish history
wanted to bring Irish language back!
by late 19th century --> English widely spoken;

English
associated with
progress & education
Irish
associated with
isolation & poverty
Huge British Empire
largest Empire in history
covering nearly a quarter of the earth's landmass (colonies in Australia, South Africa, South America, Europe, etc.)

Battle of Colenso
war between poor Irish workers & British in South Africa
poor wanted more rights
more Irish fought on British side
the poor lost
1930-1945: Ireland remains neutral
/IRA declares war against Britain
1930s: clergy controlled education in Ireland
extreme Catholic upbringing
sexual and physical abuse of children in Catholic schools
control of censorship
1932: de Valera founded a new party -> Fianna Fail
during WWII de V. refused Churchill's urges for Ireland to join the war
Ireland remained neutral
ambiguous neutrality
-> Germany bomb Belfast
-> IRA declared war against GB
-> "de V. was aware of Ireland's international role, yet his vision was that Ireland remained 'uncontaminated' by foreign ideas"
economic conflict with GB
-> deepened stagnation
many people emigrated to GB

"Ireland of de Valera:
inward-looking
complacent
very poor"
1945-1968: Post War modernisation and urbanisation
Seán Lemass
-> new Prime Minister of Ireland
encouraged
foreign investment
removed trade barriers
urged
efficiency and modernisation
1968: Civil Rights Movement

unionists thought it was an revival of Irish hostility -> clashes began again
1968-1972: Bloody Sunday, Bloody Friday;
Violence spreads to the mainland
from 70s onwards:
IRA violence spread to mainland GB
and occasionally to Rep. of Ireland
violence not only in Northern Ireland anymore
1972:
Bloody Sunday ->
Derry, Northern Ireland; 13 unarmed civil rights protesters were shot dead by British Army
Bloody Friday ->
Belfast, NI; bombings of Provisional IRA killing 11 and 130 injured
1977: retirement of de Valera
Ireland wanted change
1984: Grand Hotel Brighton bombed by IRA -> intention of killing GB's Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
Ireland compared to Northern Ireland: more open, less violent, change in sense of "Irishness"
'Bloody Sunday', U2:
1912: Home-Rule and Ulster Covenant
1916: The Easter Rising
1985-2005:
Peace Agreements
1985: Anglo-Irish Agreement
"no victors and no losers"
1998: Good Friday Agreement
people of NI should democratically choose their own future
during 80s and 90s -> "war-readiness changed to war-weariness"
30 years of senseless killings, ruthless discrimination and retaliation
2005: IRA disarmament
Unionists agree to share power with Catholics in NI
strike on General Post Office
Ulster Covenant signed to defy Home-Rule
Éamon de Valera
Michael Collins
IRA in 1920s
Bloody Friday BBC Documentary
http://peacemaker.un.org/uk-ireland-good-friday98
Full transcript