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Presupposition and Entailment

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Veronica Marin

on 24 April 2015

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Transcript of Presupposition and Entailment

For example
A. The king of France is bald.
B. The kind of France is not bald.
C. Is the king of France bald?
D.If the king of France is bald.He should wear a hat in the winter
There is a king of France.
Types of presupposition
Non- Factive
Are implications that are often felt to be in the background - to be assumed by the speaker to be already know to be addressee.
Maria Jose Hernandez
Paola Prada

Presupposition and Entailment


Veronica Marin Bedoya

Types of presupposition
Some common presupposition triggers
Background vs foreground
Subtypes of entailment
Existential presupposition
Speaker is committed to the existence
of the entities named.
The kind of France
the cat
the girl next door
your car
Factive presupposition
Certain verbs/construction indicate that something is a fact.
We REGRET telling him>>> we told him.
She didn´t REALIZE he was ill >>> he was ill
I´m GLAD it´s over >>> it´s over
Lexical presupposition
Is the assumption that, in using one word, the speaker can act as if another meaning (word) will be understood.
Andrew stopped running
>>>He used to run
You are late again
>>>You were late before
Structural presupposition
In the assumption associated with the use of certain words and phrases.
When did she travel to USA?
>> she traveled
Where did you buy the book?
>> You bought the book
A non- factive presupposition
Is one that is assumed not to be true
he pretended that he had understood what she meant.
>>He did not understand what she meant
I imagined that kelly was ill
>>Kelly was not ill
A counter factual- presupposition
Meaning that what is presupposed is not only true, but is the opposite of what is true or "contrary to facts"
Couterfactual condiional
If I had enough money, I would buy that house.
>>> I do not have enough money
If he hadn´t made such a terrible mistake, we would be very happy now.
>>> He did make/made a terrible mistake
Some common presupposition triggers
Definition of entailment
Is a relationship that applies between two sentences/propositions, where the truth of one implies the truth of the other because of the meaning of the words involved.
Sentences, not speakers, have entailments.
Logical consequences following from what is asserted in the utterance.
a) Jhon beats Tom
>>>b) Jhon beats someone
c) Tom was beaten by someone

Entailement depend on sentence meaning not the context in which the sentence is used.
Entailment also happens when one set of objects is included in anothers. It may be seen as a kind of hyponymic relation.
Mary loves her dog very much
>>> Mary loves an animal very much
dog: hyponymy
animal: superordinate
Every student loves learning English
>> Most students love learning English
Background vs foreground entailment
In one ocassion, one sentence can has a number of background entailements but one foreground entailment.
Foreground entailments which is defined by stress, is more important for interpreting intended meaning.
Subtypes of entailment
A declarative sentence typically asserts that a state of affair exists.
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