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Copy of Philippine Film History
Transcript of Copy of Philippine Film History
Philippine Film History
A stage show consisting of various acts, such as singing, dancing and comedy.
The Spanish Operetta or Musical Comedy was introduced by a political deportee from Spain, Don Narciso de Escosura, at Teatro de Binondo in 1848 and was made famous by Don Alejandro Cubero, the Father of Spanish Zarzuela in the Philippines, at Teatro Filipino on Calle Echague (now known as Carlos Palanca Sr. in Quiapo, Manila).
The First Stirrings
The Advent of Cinema in the Philippines
In 1896, a Spaniard by the name of Señor Pertierra, prepared to launch his first movie show in Manila at Christmas Time. The venue was to be at Salon de Pertierra, which he established on March of 1896. Initially it was built as the Phonograph Parlor Escolta.
The first four movies shown were Un Homme Au Chapeau (Man with a Hat), Une scene de danseJaponaise (Scene from a Japanese Dance), Les Boxers (The Boxers), and La Place de L' Opera (The Place L' Opera), were shown via 60mm GaumontChrono-photograph projector at the Salon de Pertierra.
The Arrival of Lumiere Cinematograph (1897)
Antonio Ramos, a Spanish soldier from the Alhama de Aragon in Spain, had arrived in the Philippines with the Batallon de Cazadores (Hunter's Batallion) was able to import a Lumiere Cinematograph from Paris together with more than 30 film titles. He did the acquisition with his savings and with the financial support from two Swiss entrepreneurs, Liebman and Peritz.
August 29, 1897. The movie strips shown were documentary pieces like The Czar's Carriage Passing Place la Concorde, Snow Games, Card Players, A Train's Arrival, and An Arabian Cortege.
After three months, attendance began to slacken for failure to show any new feature. They transferred the viewing hall to a warehouse in Plaza Goiti and reduced the admission fees. By the end of November, the movie hall closed down.
The First Movie Shot in the Philippines (1898)
Panorama de Manila (Manila landscape), Fiesta de Quiapo (Quiapo Fiesta), Puwente de España (Bridge of Spain), and Esceñas Callejeras (Street scenes) are some examples of the documentaries that Antonio Ramos made using the Lumiere Cinematograph
Among the pioneers who left documentary evidences of their visits to the Philippines were: Burton Holmes, Father of the Travelogue, who made the first of several visits in 1899 and made the Battle of Baliwag; Kimwood Peters who shot the Banawe Rice Terraces and Raymond Ackerman of American Biography and Mutoscope who filmed Filipino Cockfight and the Battle of Mt. Arayat.
The man who opened the first hall exclusively for movie viewing that year was a British named Walgrah who naturally called his establishment Cine Walgrah.
The second movie house was opened in 1902 by a Spanish entrepreneur, Samuel Rebarber, who called his building, Gran Cinematografo Parisien.
In 1903, Jose Jimenez, a stage backdrop painter, set up the first Filipino-owned movie theater, the Cinematograpo Rizal.
The Film Marketing in the Philippines (1912)
In 1912, New York and Hollywood film companies started to establish their own agencies in Manila to distribute films. By 1915, the best films of both Europe and U.S. were being enjoyed by Filipino audiences in Manila and the Provinces.
The Establishment of Movie Houses (1900-1910)
The First All-Filipino Picture (1919)
Don Juan Nepomuceno started the motion picture industry in 1917 and has produced several hundred films throughout his lifetime. He discovered and trained about 90% of the pre-war craftsmen in both the creative and technical fields of the industry, including stars, directors and technicians. For his efforts and sacrifices, he has been called the “The Father of Philippine Movies”.
Don Jose Nepomuceno is best known for directing the first all-Filipino picture in 1919, Dalagang Bukid from the original zarzuela written by Don Hermogenes Ilagan. The movie starred Honorata “Atang” De Lara Rama, where she was known for singing Nabasag na Banga, and Marceliano Ilagan. It was run on September 25, 1919 at the Empire Theater.
Censorship and Taxes on Philippine Cinema
The Government established the Board of Censors for cinematographic films in 1912, It was in constant operation until it was superseded by the Board of Censorship for Moving Pictures in 1929. This is now the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board (MTRCB).
The government also imposed the first taxes on film in 1915, the same year income taxes were imposed. Direct taxes were slapped by the national government on "kinetoscope, biographs, cinematographs, magic lanterns and similar picture-projecting devices.
Realizing the importance and the contributory value of the movie industry to the government; and to have a closer supervision and extend the much needed assistance to the industry, a Presidential Decree was issued creating the Film Academy of the Philippines.
The First Movie with Sound (1930)
December 8, 1932, an article came out in Graphic magazine featuring the movie, Ang Aswang (The Vampire)claiming that the movie is the first film with sound.
The honor of having made the very first talkie properly belongs to Jose Nepomuceno. His film Punyal na Guinto (Golden Dagger) based on the Antonio Sempio’s novel, premiered on March 9, 1933 at the Lyric theater.
The Beginning of the Golden Age of Philippine Cinema (1930-1950)
Immensely Popular Dramas or Comedy of the Zarzuela
Typical Filipino Action Movie
Conventional Filipino Melodrama
Julian Manansala’s film Patria Amore (Beloved Country) earned him the name “Father of the Nationalistic Film”
Wartime Films and the Effect on Philippine Films (1940s)
A Philippine version of the war movie had emerged as a genre in which were recreated narratives of horror and heroism with soldiers and guerillas as protagonists. Audiences, still hungry for new movies and still fired up by the patriotism and hatred for foreign enemies did not seem to tire of recalling their experiences of war.
The Big Four of the Film Industry
The Golden Age of Philippine Cinema (1950-1960)
Premiere Productions Incorporated
LVN Productions Incorporated
The Zarzuela, a traditional Spanish one-act comic opera with satirical theme.
LVN Productions Inc.
Premiere Production Inc.
The King of Philippine Movies
King of Comedy
The Decline of Philippine Film (1960s)
Foreign Films that were sensationalizing violence and soft core sex films are dominating the Philippine Cinema
Teen Love team Revolution- A Youth Revolution
Child Star Revolution
Action movies with Filipino cowboys and secret agents as the movers of the plots depicted a society ravaged by criminality and corruption.
The Uprising of Bomba Films
The Decline of Philippine Film (1960s)
Films during Martial Law
Marcos retooled the liberal-democratic political system into an authoritarian government which concentrated power in a dictator’s hand.
The first step was to control the content of movies by insisting on some form of censorship. One of the first rules promulgated by the Board of Censors for Motion Pictures (BCMP) stipulated submission of a finished script prior to the start of filming.
Under martial law, action films depicting shoot outs and sadistic fistfights ( which were as violent as ever) usually append to the ending an epilogue claiming that the social realities depicted had been wiped out with the establishment of the New Society.
Philippine Films after Marcos
Films such as Lino Brocka’s Bayan Ko: KapitsaPatalim (My Country: Gripping the Knife’s Edge, 1985) were defiant, not in the sense of it being openly stated by in the images of torture, incarceration, struggle and oppression. Marilou Diaz-Abaya’s Karnal (1984) depicts this in a different way in the film’s plot wherein patricide ends a tyrannical father’s domination. Mike de Leon’s Sister Stella L. (1984), was a typical de Leon treatment of the theme of oppression and tyranny.
Rising of Alternative Film Makers
Cinemalaya Philippine Independent Film Festival
The Cinemalaya Philippine Independent Film Festival is a film competition and festival that aims to encourage the creation of new cinematic works by Filipino filmmakers – works that boldly articulate and freely interpret the Filipino experience with fresh insight and artistic integrity
From San Jose to Cannes
Jaguar, the official Philippine entry, scripted by Ricardo Lee and Jose F. Lacaba, was the only entry with no ads, no posters, no gimmickry.
Chosen as one of the best films of the 1970s by the Manunuri ng Pelikulang Pilipino, Jaguar also won Best Picture during the 4th Gawad Urian Awards and the 28th FAMAS Awards. Brocka won Best Director in both the FAMAS and Gawad Urian.
The film was given French recognition by being given the designation "A Film Noir by Lino Brocka.