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English Tenses (by dostykbilim.kz)

English Tenses & Aspects. Please use the arrow keys at the bottom of the window to navigate.
by

Maglia Mancante

on 1 February 2014

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Transcript of English Tenses (by dostykbilim.kz)

ENGLISH TENSES
PREsent
future
past
Present Simple
Non-action verbs
action verbs
Actions that can be seen and can take -ing ending
Examples:
I am happy. [NOT I am being happy]
It tastes delicious! [NOT It is tasting delicious]
I have a laptop. [NOT I am having laptop]
Examples:
I am watching TV now.
We go to the movies on the weekend.
He was sleeping at that moment.
see feel taste smell hear
have want like love hate
think guess know understand
Past Simple
Past Progressive
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Progressive
Future Perfect
Future Progressive
Future Simple
Future Perfect Progressive
I
study
English every day.
I
am studying
English now.
I
studied
English last year.
I
have studied
English in several countries.
I
have been studying
English since 2005.
I
was studying
English when you called yesterday.
I
will have studied
every tense when I finish this course.
I
will study
English next year.
I
am going to study
English next year.
I
will have been studying
for over two hours by the time you arrive.
I
will be studying
when you arrive.
I
am going to be studying
when you arrive.
Present Perfect
I
had been studying
English for two years before I moved to the U.S.
I
had studied
a little English before I moved to the U.S.
Present Perfect Progressive
I
am
an English student now.
I
am taking
a writing course this year.
Future "Be going to"
Present Simple
Present Progressive
(Spoken)
(Spoken)


perfective
Progressive
now
Present Progressive
infinitive (He / She / It +
s
)

We use Present Simple:
-to express routines taking place regularly
-to express a permanent condition
-to express feelings or opinions
-for future actions (see Future tenses)

Examples:
They
play
tennis every day.
He seldom
plays
tennis.
The Earth
goes
around the Sun.
I
do not
(
don't
)
play
tennis at all.
Don't
you
play
tennis?
Does
she usually
play
tennis?
Keywords:
usually, generally, sometimes, always, never, often, seldom/rarely, every day, twice a week
am / is / are + present participle

We use Present Progressive:
-when an action happens at the moment of speaking
-when an action happens during a period that includes the present moment
-for a frequent activity about which we feel some emotion - usually irritation (with always, forever etc.)
-for future actions (see in Future tenses)

Examples:
I
am eating
an apple right now.
We
are eating
apples at the moment.
Look! It
is eating
an apple.
You
are
always
complaining
.
They
are
constantly
arguing
with each other.
She
is studying
hard this month.
They
are writing
a book about dogs.
I
am not

eating
an apple.
They
are not
(
aren't
)
eating
apples.
He
isn't eating
an apple.
What
are
you
eating
at the moment?
Is
he
not eating
an apple?
We use Present Progressive for future:
-to show that there is a fixed plan for something in future
-the precise time is often the signal

Example:
They
are having
a picnic next Saturday.
He
is visiting
his granny this weekend.
Keywords:
at the moment, (right) now, Listen! Look! today, at present, this week
am / is / are + going to + infinitive

We use Future "be going to":
-to show that a plan has already been decided
-when something is about to happen really soon with clear signs for it

Examples:
She
is going to

visit
her grandmother in the hospital.
We
are going to

show
the drama next month.
Is
it
going to

rain
?
He
is not
(
isn't
)
going to

spend
his money for the donation campaign.
Isn't
he
going to

spend
his money for the donation campaign?
Keywords:
in one year, next week, tomorrow
will / shall + infinitive

We use Future Simple:
-to make a forecast about something
-to make a spontaneous decision

Examples:
I
will / shall buy
some fruits tomorrow.
We
will have
a lot of fun on the Friday party.
Will
you
buy
any fruits?
Shall
we
wait
for others?
Probably, he
will not
(
won't
)
help
us anymore.
I think they
won't be
ready in one hour.
Keywords:
I guess, I think, maybe, probably, tomorrow, next week, in several days
We use Present Simple for future:
-to express that something happens according to a timetable

Example:
The last train
leaves
at 11 p.m.
The show program
ends
at 22:30
The exam
begins
at 9 a.m. tomorrow.
infinitive + ed (V2)

We use Past Simple:
-if an action ended at a specific time in the past
-if an action was followed by other past actions

Examples:
I
visited
a museum yesterday.
Did
you
visit
a museum last weekend?
He
did not
(
didn't
)
die
in 1976.
They
were not
(
weren't
) professors 5 years ago.
Keywords:
yesterday, the previous day, ago, in 1991, last night, in the past
was / were + infinitive + ing

We use Past Progressive:
-to express a continued action during a specific time in the past
-sometimes this action is stopped by a short action

Examples:
In the afternoon she
was listening
to music.
At 9 o'clock we
were watching
a TV show.
He
wasn't driving
his car when you called him.
What
were
you
doing
this time yesterday?
Weren't
you
sleeping
during the lesson?
Keywords:
when, while, as long as, at 7 o'clock, this time yesterday, all day, whole evening, during, from 3 till 5
have / has + past participle (V3)

We use Present Perfect:
-if a result of an unspecified action is important for the present
-if the result/experience of a past action affects the present

Examples:
She
has cooked
a meal for her guests.
I
have
never
seen
a falling star in my life.
Has
she
cooked
a meal for today?
Have
you ever
been
to Manchester?
She
hasn't spoken
with the manager about the problem yet.
This is the only thing I
have known
so far.
Haven't
they
lived
here since 1999?
Keywords:
already, just, ever, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now, this week, recently, lately, since, for
have / has + been + infinitive + ing

We use Present Perfect Progressive:
-if an action still continues up to the present
-if an action just finished, but its clear signs are seen

Examples:
He
has been learning
a new language for 2 years.
We
have been cleaning
our room since morning.
Has
it
been raining
all day?
How long
have
you
stayed
in Astana?
We
haven't been watching
the new serial for 2 days.
Haven't
they
been traveling
around the world in 80 days?
Keywords:
all day, for years,
since, how long, the whole week, during
had + past participle (V3)

We use Past Perfect:
-when there are two past actions one of which happened before the other one
-often in combination with Past Simple

Examples:
Before she ate the dinner, she
had cooked
it.
After they
had had
holidays they went to school.
Had
he
prepared
the dinner by 3 o'clock?
Had
you
spoken
any French before you visited France?
She didn't go to school because she
hadn't made
her homework.
My little brother ate the cake (which) I
had bought
for myself.
I realized that I
had seen
her somewhere before.
Keywords:

before, after, by that time
had been + infinitive + ing

We use Past Perfect Progressive:
-when an action was happening till another action happened
-often in combination with Past Simple

Examples:
He
had been cheating
for a long time before the teacher caught him red-handed.
They
had been having
holidays by the time the school started.
Hadn't
she
been preparing
the dinner since that morning?
Had
you
been working
hard before you had the heart-attack?
My little brother ate the cake (which) I
had been cooking
all day.
I realized that I
hadn't been listening
to music for ages.
Keywords:

before, after, by that time, since, for, during, all day, whole evening
will/shall have + past participle (V3)

We use Future Perfect:
-to indicate an action that is to be completed before a certain time or another future action

Examples:
I
shall have finished

my essay by Thursday.
By next year they
will have lived

in Almaty for half a century.
When the police finally find him, he
will have disposed

of all the evidence.
Will
you

have returned

by the time we visit you again?
Keywords:
by, before, when
will/shall have been + infinitive + ing

We use Future Perfect Progressive:
-similarly as in present perfect progressive but the point of reference is in the future, where an action will continue up to a specific time

Examples:
He will be very tired because he
will have been working
all morning tomorrow.
By midnight we
will have been studying
for almost 10 hours.
They
will have been preparing
for 9 months before they take the test.
Will
people
have been working
for half a day in Asia by the time people in America get up?
Keywords:
by, before, for, since, till, when
will/shall be + present participle

We use Future Progressive:
-to indicate that an event will be in progress at a particular point in the future:

Examples:
This time tomorrow I
shall be taking
my driving test.
I guess we
will
already
be eating
when you arrive.
Will
she
be flying
to London at 7 o'clock tomorrow?
Keywords:
at 5 o'clock tomorrow, this time tomorrow, all day, whole evening, during, when, while, from 3 till 5
Actions that cannot be seen and cannot take -ing ending
Full transcript