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elif bilgin

on 22 December 2014

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Community Language Learning was developed by Charles Arthur Curran. Curran was a specialist in counseling and a professor of
psychology at Loyola University, Chicago.

What is CLL?
Community language learning (CLL) is Language-Teaching Method in which students work together to develop what aspects of a language they would like to learn.
-It is based on the Counseling-Learning approach in which the teacher acts as a counselor, while the learner is seen as a client.

Counseling is one person giving advice, assistance, and support to another who has a problem or is in some way in need.
Whole Person
CLL involves humanistic
techniques which engage
the whole person, including
the emotions and
feelings as well as
linguistic knowledge
and behavioral skills.
Language Theory
-La Forge (Curran's student) explains that language theory must start, though not end, with criteria for sound features, the sentence, and abstract models of language.
- In sum, the foreign language learners' tasks are to comprehend the sound system, assign basic meanings, and to construct a basic grammar.
-CLL techniques belong to a larger set of foreign language teaching practices sometimes described as humanistic techniques.
-Moskowitz defines humanistic techniques as what the student feels, thinks and knows with what he is learning in the target language.
Theory of Learning
-The CLL view of learning is a holistic one, since 'true' human learning is both cognitive and affective.
- Within this development of learner's relationship with the teacher is central. The process is divided into 5 stages.
-Embryonic Stage
looking for security and sense of belonging.
-Self-assertion Stage
gradually obtain competence of being
-Reversal Stage : being able to speak
independently, refuse unnecessary suggestions.
-Adolescence Stage : fully prepared with
cognitive competence and be able to accept
-Independent Stage : capable to have free
conversation with others.

A group of ideas concerning the psychological
requirements for successful learning are
collected under the acronym ‘SARD’.

-Security - security-non-threatening learning
-Aggression – opportunities to assert themselves, to be actively involved in the learning experience should be given to ss.
-Attention – ability to attend to many factors
simultaneously by narrowing the scope of attention initially

-Teachers want their students to learn how to use the target language communicatively.
-They want their students to learn about their own learning.
-They want their students to take increasing
responsibility for their own learning.
-They want their students to learn how to learn from one another.
-CLL does not use a conventional language syllabus , which sets out in advance the grammar, vocabulary.
-CLL syllabus emerges from the interaction between learner's expressed communicative intentions and the teacher's reformulations of these into suitable target language utterances.
CLL combines innovative learning tasks and activities with conventional ones. They include:
1)Translation: Learners form a small circle. A learner says a sentence or a word that he wants to express, the teacher translates it into target language and the learner repeats it.
2) Group work: Learner may engage in different group tasks, such as small group discussion, preparing a story.

6) Reflection and Observation: Learners reflect and report on their experience of class, as a class or in groups.
7) Listening: Students listen to a monologue by the teacher involving elements they might have elicited or overheard in class interactions.
8) Free Conversation: Students engage in free conversation or discussion with the teacher or with other learners.
-At the beginning, they depend on the teacher but later they don’t need a lot.
-Learners become members of a community and learn through interaction with the community.
-Learning is not viewed as an individual accomplishment but as something that is achieved collaboratively.

Students are expected:
* to listen attentively to the teacher,
* to freely provide meanings they wish to express,
* to repeat target utterances without hesitation,
* to support fellow members of the community,
* to report deep inner feelings and frustration as well as joy and pleasure
* to become counselors of other learners.
They are counselors! Not the authority!

-In the early stages of learning, the teacher has a supportive role, providing target language translations and a model for imitation on request of the student.
-The teacher ‘s initial role is primarily that of a counselor. The teacher skillfully
understands and supports his students in their struggle to master the target
-The teacher monitors utterances, providing assistance if necessary.
-The teacher can help them overcome negative feelings that might otherwise block their learning.
-The teacher says correctly what the student has said incorrectly.
-The teacher is considered as a counselor- teacher.
-There is no certain text book.
-Materials may be developed by the teacher as the course develops.
-Conversations may be transcribed and distributed for study and analysis.
- Students can produce their own materials such as scripts for dialogues and mini-dramas
The CLL method is neither student-centered nor teacher-centered but rather teacher-student-centered.
-They are both decision makers in the class.
-Building a relationship with the students is very important. In a trusting relationship, their anxiety can be reduced and this helps students to stay open to the learning process.
-Students can learn from their interactions with each other as well as their interaction with the teacher.
The first few attempts at CLL work better with a
monolingual class as the instructions can be given in L1.
 Students' security is initially enhanced by using their
native language.
In fact, although no particular mode of evaluation is prescribed in CLL method, whatever evaluation is conducted should be in keeping with the principles of the method.
 A teacher-made classroom test would be an integrative test (usually require the testees to demonstrate simultaneous control over several aspects of language) rather than a discrete-point test (are based on an analytical view of language. This is where language is divided up so that components of it may be tested.) .

Teacher should work with what the learner has
produced in a non-threatening way.
 Teacher repeats correctly what student has said
incorrectly without calling further attention to
the error and the owner of the error.
 Techniques depend on where the students are in
five-stage learning process, but consistent with
sustaining the relationship.

Student’s feeling is very important in CLL;
 1) Teacher asks how they feel about learning
a foreign language.
 2) Teacher helps Students to overcome negative feelings.
 3) Students’ security is provided
 HOW? (Teacher use Student’s L1,respecting time
limits, giving clear instructions, taking responsibility
for structuring activities)

Learners appreciate the autonomy CLL offers them
and thrive on analyzing their own conversations.
 CLL works especially well with lower levels who are
struggling to produce spoken English.
 The class often becomes a real community, not just
when using CLL but all of the time. Students become
much more aware of their peers, their strengths and
weaknesses and want to work as a team.
 CLL offers really a comfortable learning environment
for the student.
CLL stresses the feelings and independent
development of learners
Centers on the student, not on the teacher; passes the
responsibility of learning to the learners where it
actually belongs.
The class becomes a community all of the time.
Students become more aware of their peers, their
strengths and weaknesses.
Focuses on the humanistic side of language learning
An understanding and listening teacher provides a
secure environment for the learners.

In the beginning some learners find it difficult to speak on tape while others might find that the conversation lacks spontaneity.
 Teachers can find it strange to give students so much freedom and tend to intervene too much.
 In an effort to let students become independent learners teachers can neglect Ss’ need for guidance.

 The first reason why this method is criticized is that it is
too non-directive(Teacher is submissive rather than directive).
 The lack of a syllabus leads unclear objectives, and it
leads difficult evaluation.
 Some believe it is not a method which can be
recommended for the students who are learning
English as part of a compulsory education system.
What are the contributions of CLL Method to students?
What are the aims of CLL in language teaching?
Which parts of language are emphasized?
Which language skills are emphasized?
What are the characteristics of teacher in this method? How does the teacher respond to students' errors?
What do you think about the student-teacher and student-student interaction?
What is the role of the students' native language?
How is evaluation accomplished?
What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?
Would you instruct using the CLL method? Why or why not?
What are the differences/similarities between CLL and Grammar Translation Method?
What are the limitations of this method?
-Reflection – reflect on the language and stop and consider the active experience; e.g. When Ss reflect on the language as the teacher reads the transcript three times.
-Retention – the integration of new material that takes place within the whole self
-Discrimination – sorting out differences among target language forms such as Human Computer.
3) Recording: Teacher records students' conversations in the target language.
4) Transcription: Teacher transcribes students' utterances and conversations for practise and analysis of linguistic forms.
5) Analysis: Students analyze and study transcriptions of the target language sentence to focus on grammar rules.
 The purpose of L1 is to provide a bridge from the
familiar to the unfamiliar. Also, directions in class and
sessions during which students express their feelings
are understood and conducted in their L1.
 Meaning is made clear in other ways later on, with
pantomime, pictures, and the use of target language
synonyms, for example.
 Students would be asked to write a paragraph or be given an
oral interview rather than being asked to answer a question
which deals with only one point of language at a time.
 Teacher asks questions to assess gains in:
 Grammar Vocabulary Syntax for self-evaluation.
 Teacher enables students to look at their own learning and to
become aware of their own progress.
 This method assumes that students primarily want to
learn that language, which is not the case most of the time.
 Not applicable in large and crowded classrooms.
 While letting students to become independent learners ,
students’ need for guidance can be neglected.

-Humanism as a philosophy, dream of an idea world which consists of “autonomous creative and emotionally secure people” and education can and should assist in the creation of such an ideal world.
-Humanistic Approach in language learning is one of the latest and most thought provoking methodology which places the learner as the focal point in the language teaching and learning process. Humanism as an educational approach considers language learning as a process which engages the whole person in the learning activity and not just his/ her intellect. It gives ample care for the emotional and psychological wellbeing of the learner.
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