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Nonverbal communication in EFL context

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Ariel Huang

on 12 January 2014

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Transcript of Nonverbal communication in EFL context

Bissa & Sharma (2010)
7 percent verbal, 38 percent vocal, and 55 percent Non-Verbal.

Gullberg (2006) ; Neu (1990)
Non-verbal communication > successful communication in a second language.

Zeki (2009)
Teacher’s non-verbal communication > Comfortable and relaxing atmosphere > Self-confidence > Participation and contributions > Ask questions > Understanding of the topics.

Hsu (2010)
Non-verbal immediacy behaviors > lessen students’ anxiety on English learning > Enhancing students’ motivation.
Novita (2012)
Language teachers need to be trained in order that they can help students
practice some of the nonverbal behavior aspects

in the target culture.

It is necessary to
raise an awareness
in learners and let them decide how to behave when they interact with a person from the target culture.
Cross-cultural communication
Nonverbal communication in EFL context
Ariel & Patrick
Dr. Chi

The use of NVC for Teachers in education
In language teaching
In language classroom
In teaching language learners
Conclusion & Suggestions
How to meet students’ need
Zeki (2009)

Eye contact, mimics and gestures are used differently for secondary school and university learners.
Definition of Terminology
Verbal communication (VC)

Refers to the
spoken or written form of communication
which humans produce intentionally for obvious purposes.

Nonverbal communication (NVC)
Hints at sending and receiving
wordless messages
by means of facial expression, eye contact, gesture, posture, touch, distance, tone of voice, etc.

Nonverbal immediacy
Defines as those communication behaviors that “enhance
nonverbal interaction
with another”.
Category of NVC
Eye contact and gaze
Facial expressions - smile
Posture and gesture
Vocalic communication
Why NVC is important
Psycho-social and personality dimensions
In teaching language learner
Avoid intercultural misunderstandings.

Realize non-verbal communication as their socialization process takes place.

Reveal basic cultural traits of the target community.

Receive less the attention it deserves in language teaching.

Neglect the teaching of non-verbal communication for EFL Learners.

Apply the developed theory into language teaching.
Rowe & Silverman & Mullan (2013)
Word learning
Some Significant effects of applying NVC to teaching
How does NVC help students
The effects of NVC on students
How to meet students’ need
How does NVC help students
Significant effects of applying NVC to teaching

Review the use of NVC from teachers and students’ point of view respectively in order to enhance effective teaching and learning in EFL context.

Students' characteristics
The function of NVC
1) Having
of the class.

2) Keeping the students
Secondary School Students
1) A source for
motivation, concentration, enthusiasm

2) A tool for taking and maintaining
University Students
How to meet students' need
NVC's Chacteristics
Baylor & Kim (2009)
Cognitive load theory
– Since both facial expression and deictic gestures were visual animations, they may have hindered students’ working memory processing when
both nonverbal behaviors co-existed
Rowe & Silverman & Mullan (2013)
Providing redundant information in the form of gesture is beneficial specially when the task is
Rowe & Silverman & Mullan (2013)

Providing redundant information in two forms might be helpful for novices.
Rowe & Silverman & Mullan (2013)

Children with
high English-language abilities
did not perform significantly different on the conditions that included nonverbal aids.
Children with
low English-language abilities
were enhanced by the nonverbal aids, specifically gestures.
Sime (2006)
1. Cognitive function
2. Emotional function
3. Organizational function
Negi (2009); Hsu (2010)
If the teachers’ non-verbal behaviors are positive, students
enjoy the lecture and highly motivated to the teacher and the subject matter

If teachers become aware of their NVBs, it certainly helps them to become more proficient at receiving students’ messages as well as more proficient at sending accurate messages.
Keeping smile and node their heads.
Keeping movements in the classroom.
Making frequent eye contacts.
Non-verbal communication can be an important source of
for students’ learning as well as a tool for taking and maintaining
Eye contact
is not only to be considered as a tool for the teacher to
convey messages
but as a means to
interpret the messages
students can display nonverbally via their eyes, mimics and gestures.
There are four main uses of eye contact in the classroom.
By maintaining
eye contact
with students when speaking or listening to them encourages
by students.
1) To show a student who is talking that the teacher is
taking notice

2) To check that everyone is

3) To indicate to a student that
you want to talk to him
you want him to do something.

4) To
contributions when one is trying to elicit ideas.
Eye contact in the classroom
Karimi & Dabaghi & Tabatabaei (2012)
L2 lexical items
Guvendir (2011)
Correct the students’ errors
Zeki ( 2009)
Teachers’ nonverbal communication plays an important role in helping teachers to
create a more comfortable and relaxing environment in class.
Class management
Okon (2011)
In order to deal with the conflict raises in classroom, teachers need to equip with the effective skills to
recognize conflict and use responses
which will facilitate conflict resolution.
e.g., aggressive body language
In language teaching
Klinzing (2009)
Positive and significant relationships could be found between
nonverbal competencies
and its



Psycho-social dimensions
Success in Current Interpersonal Relations
Self-Efficacy Expectation (FEW)
Competence and Control Orientations

Personality dimensions
Sociability, Calmness, and Extraversion
In language teaching
In language classroom
learning motivation
Conflict management
Zeki (2009)
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