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Copy of Organelles of the cells involved in Cell division and Stages

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Renz Castillo

on 13 September 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Organelles of the cells involved in Cell division and Stages

Organelles of the cells involved in Cell division and Stages of Mitosis

Organelles of the cell involved in cell division
Stage where a cell prepares itself by replicating its own genetic information and all of its organelles.

Mitotic Phase
Pop Quiz
Mitosis
the process by which a cell, which has previously replicated each of its chromosomes.
Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle—the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to their parent cell.

Cell Division
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. In eukaryotes, there are two distinct type of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis). and a reductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half, to produce haploid gametes (meiosis). Both of these cell division cycles are required in sexually reproducing organisms at some point in their life cycle, and both are believed to be present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor Prokaryotes also undergo a vegetative cell division known as binary fission, where their genetic material is segregated equally into two daughter cells. All cell divisions, regardless of organism, are preceded by a single round of DNA replication.
Process of Cell division
Cell Membrane
the main function is to control what goes in and out of the cell. It is made of a double layer of lipids (fats) imbedded with odd-looking protein molecules. Because it is a fat, only some things that are very tiny, like water and oxygen pass through this part. This is where the proteins play their part. They act as carriers for larger molecules, like food. Of course the membrane must be there to keep everything inside, and so acts as a barrier. Some of those odd looking proteins also act as receptors for messages from other cells or from the blood.

Microtubules
are miniature tubes that act as the skeleton of the cell, just like our skeleton holds us together. In mitosis, the microtubules rearrange themselves into spindle fibers that stretch between the centrioles and attach to the chromosomes to move them around, as you will see in the diagrams contained in the mitosis section.

Nucleus
is the control center of the cell. This is because the nucleus contains Chromosomes that are made up of long strands of molecules called DNA. The DNA carries messages for how to put together proteins. Proteins, in turn, are used for structure (skin, muscle). Also, enzymes are proteins that are involved in all the chemical reactions of the cell. They are catalysts, which speed up the rate of the chemical reactions that are going on in the cell.

Group#6
Leader: Juan Victor Casuno
Members:
Renz Castillo
Keisha Cabigao
Maxine Carolino
Anthony Tan
Hirome Shibato
Centrioles
are paired organelles that are in the cytoplasm only to take part in cell division. As you will see in the diagrams of mitosis, first they duplicate and then each pair moves to a place called the pole of the cell and seems to anchor the spindle fibers.

Process of Mitosis
Interphase

Gap 1=The cell increases in size in preparation for division.
Synthesis= DNA synthesis (replication) occurs.
Gap 2= the cell continues to grow and synthesize RNA proteins.


Process of nuclear division of cells.

Prophase
Prophase = The DNA molecules progressively shortenand condense by coiling, to form chromosomes. The nuclear membrane and nucleolus are no longer visible.

Metaphase
Metaphase= The spindle fibres attach themselves to thecentromeres of the chromosomes and align the the chromosomes at the equatorial plate.

Anaphase
Anaphase= The spindle fibres shorten and the centromere splits, separated sister chromatids are pulled along behind the centromeres.

Telophase
Telophase= The chromosomes reach the poles of their respective spindles. Nuclear envelope reform before the chromosomes uncoil. The spindle fibres disintegrate.

Cytokinesis
Cytokinesis= This is the last stage of mitosis. It is the process of splitting the daughter cells apart. A furrow forms and the cell is pinched in two. Each daughter cell contains the same number and same quality of chromosomes.

Schematic Presentation of Mitosis
Wordmeans
A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA, protein, and RNA found in cells
Cell nucleus= In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

The cytoplasm comprises cytosol – the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane – and the organelles – the cell's internal sub-structures. 
In cell biology, an organelle  is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and it is usually separately enclosed within its own lipid bilayer.
The cell membrane, or plasma membrane, is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from theoutside environment.
Eukaryotic cells are structurally complex, and by definition are organized, in part, by interior compartments that are themselves enclosed by lipid membranes that resemble the outermost cell membrane. 
Prokaryotes are not as structurally complex as eukaryotes, and were once thought not to have any internal structures enclosed by lipid membranes.

Question# 1
1. process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
Question# 2
2. give the right order of the process of mitosis
Question# 3
3.are paired organelles that are in the cytoplasm only to take part in cell division.
Question# 4
4. Stage where a cell prepares itself by replicating its own genetic information and all of its organelles.

Question# 5
What is Mitosis and Cell Division?
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