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Copy of Earth Systems and Interactions
Transcript of Copy of Earth Systems and Interactions
Earth Systems and Interactions
The Earth has many systems that work together just like your body.
The outermost of the Earth system is made of gases and particles, and it is called the atmosphere. It is mainly made of nitrogen and oxygen.
Below the atmosphere is the hydrosphere. The hydrosphere contains oceans, glaciers, lakes, ice sheets, ponds, and rivers. The hydrosphere interacts directly with the geosphere and the biosphere. It interacts with the geosphere through weathering and erosion.
The largest Earth system is the geosphere. It includes the thin layer of soil and rocks on the Earth's surface. The geosphere is mainly solid.
All living things on Earth make up the biosphere. The biosphere is in all other Earth systems because organisms live in air, water, soil, and rocks. Living things survive using gases from the atmosphere, and water from the hydrosphere.
Interactions Among Earth Systems
Earth systems interact by exchanging matter and energy. Matter and energy often change form as they go between systems.
The Water Cycle
An example of an interaction among Earth systems is the water cycle. The water cycle is a continuous movement of water. Water moves within the hydrosphere and into other Earth systems. As water changes state, it moves heat.
The Rock Cycle
The rock cycle is a series of processes that changes rocks from one form to another. Some processes take place deep within the Earth. Other processes, such as erosion and weathering, take place on or near the Earth's surface.
The Carbon Cycle
CARBON CYCLE-is the series of processes that continuously move carbon among Earth systems
Processes of the Carbon Cycle
Carbon enters the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. This gas is removed from the atmosphere in several ways, such as photosynthesis, chemical weathering, and when dissolved in water. CO2 leaves the biosphere through cellular respiration.
Carbon is the most abundant substance after water in living things. Carbon is in reservoirs in all Earth systems. Carbon in the biosphere is stored in organisms, but does not exist as atoms. Carbon in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere exists as CO2. Most carbon is in the geosphere.
Humans and the Carbon Cycle
Some changes in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere occur naturally, but not all do. Other changes are caused by human activities such as burning fossil fuels. GREENHOUSE GASES-are gases that absorb and reradiate thermal energy from the Sun
The Phosphorus Cycle
Not all important elements cycle through all Earth systems. One example is the phosphorus cycle because it does not exist in the atmosphere. PHOSPHORUS CYCLE-is the series of processes that move phosphorus among Earth systems
Processes of the Phosphorus Cycle
Phosphorus isn't found in nature as an element. It forms compounds with oxygen called phosphates. Earth's phosphorus comes from the geosphere. Rocks at the Earth's surface release phosphates when they weather. Dissolved phosphates move in liquid water in the water cycle.
Rocks in the geosphere include minerals containing phosphates. A reservoir for phosphorus is the hydrosphere because phosphates dissolves in water. The cycling of phosphorus in the geosphere and hydrosphere occurs slowly. In the biosphere, it recycles quickly.
Humans and the Phosphorus Cycle
Humans can also disturb the phosphorus cycle. Clearing forests exposes soil and disturbs the phosphorus cycle, which then rain can wash away phosphorus released by decaying plants. Also, algae can consume phosphorus.
1. What are the four Earth systems?
2. What are some examples of interactions among Earth systems?
3. How do humans disturb the carbon cycle?
4. How do humans disturb the phosphorus cycle?
5. What does the atmosphere contain?
6. What does the hydrosphere contain?
7. What does the geosphere contain?
8. What does the biosphere contain?
9.How do Earth systems interact in the carbon cycle? 10. How do Earth systems interact in the phosphorus cycle?
Processes of the Carbon Cycle Cont.
Carbon leaves the hydrosphere and enters the geosphere when sedimentary rocks form on the ocean floor. As carbon moves through all the the Earth systems, the amount of carbon stays the same.
Processes of the Phosphorus Cycle Cont.
Eventually, the phosphates reaches lake bottoms or the seafloor. Plants absorb phosphorus from either soil or water, and animals take in phosphorus when they eat plants or when they eat other animals that have eaten plants.
1. atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere
2. water cycle, carbon cycle, phosphorus cycle
3. burning fossil fuels, cutting down trees
4. clearing forests
5. gases & particles; nitrogen & oxygen
6. all the Earth's water
7. the Earth's rocks and soil
8. all living things
9. the carbon moves through all the Earth's systems as different forms
10. the phosphorus moves through most of the Earth's systems as different forms