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Chapter 16 - Stress and Health

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April M

on 5 December 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 16 - Stress and Health

Fin Sources of Stress Stress and Health Stressors Stress Reactions The Psychology of Illness Somatoform Disorders Stress Management The Psychology of Health Optimism and hardiness are associated with reduced risk for illnesses, perhaps because people with these traits can fend off stress Specific events or chronic pressures that place demands on a person or threaten the person's well-being Stress The physical and psychological response to internal or external stressors cause the response to Health Psychology The subfield of psychology concerned with ways psychological factors influence health Stressful Events Major life events can cause stress (e.g., bankruptcy, death in family, divorce, etc.) Positive events can also be stressful, requiring readjustment and preparedness (e.g., marriage, adopting a pet, having a child, first date, etc.) Chronic Stressors Sources of stress that occur continuously or repeatedly types of Perceived Control Events are most stressful when we perceive that there is no way to control or deal with the challenge moderates A daily commute in heavy traffic can be a chronic stressor Physical Reactions Fight-or-flight An emotional and physiological reaction to an emergency that increases readiness for action http://cmhc.utexas.edu/stressrecess/animations/fofmovie-start.swf General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) A three-stage physiological response that appears regardless of the stressor that is encountered. Alarm Phase The body rapidly mobilizes resources to respond to threat (equivalent to fight-or-flight) 1. Resistance Phase The body adapts to its high state of arousal as it tries to cope with the stressor and is taxed to generate resistance 2. Exhaustion Phase The body's resistance collapses if sustained too long and may cause damage due to overtaxing resources 3. Stress Effects on the Immune Response Immune System A complex response system that protects the body from bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances. Lymphocytes White blood cells that produce antibodies that fight infection part of Type A Behavior Pattern The tendency toward easily aroused hostility, impatience, a sense of time urgency, and competitive achievement strivings Heart disease and attacks Hostility predicts heart disease better than any other major causal factor such as smoking, high caloric intake, or even high levels of cholestorol leads to 3x more likely to develop premature heart disease, 6x more likely to have an early heart attack Psychological Reactions Stress Interpretation Primary appraisal Is stimulus stressful? Secondary appraisal Is stressor something you can handle? Yes No Great. Yes Perceive as
challenge No Perceive as
threat Stress Disorders Post-traumatic stress
disorder (PTSD) A disorder characterized by chronic physiological arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma, and avoidance of things that call the traumatic event to mind Burnout A state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion created by long-term involvement in an emotionally demanding situation and accompanied by lowered performance and motivation Mind Management Repressive Coping Avoiding situations or thoughts that are reminders of a stressor and maintaining an artificially positive viewpoint Rational Coping Facing a stressor and working to overcome it Reframing Finding a new or creative way to think about a stressor that reduces its threat Stress inoculation training (SIT) A therapy that helps people to cope with stressful situations by developing positive ways to think about the situation type of Body Management Relaxation therapy A technique for reducing tension by consciously relaxing muscles of the body Relaxation Response A condition of reduced muscle tension, cortical activity, heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure Biofeedback The use of an external monitoring device to obtain information about a bodily function and possibly gain control over that function Aerobic Exercise As little as 10 minutes of exercise at a time can yield positive mood boost, 30 minutes of moderately vigorous exercise will reduce the risk of chronic illness Situation Management Social Support The aid gained through interacting with others Humor Helps to lessen the effects of stress and return the body more quickly to a non-arousal state after a stressful stimulus Psychosomatic illness An interaction between mind (psyche) and body (soma) that can produce illness The set of psychological disorders in which the person displays physical symptoms not fully explained by a general medical condition. Hypochondriasis Being preoccupied with minor symptoms and developing an exaggerated belief that the symptoms signify a life-threatening illness Somatization disorder Involves combinations of multiple physical complaints with no medical explanation Conversion disorder Apparently debilitating physical symptoms that appear to be voluntary--but that the person experiences as involuntary Sick Role A socially recognized set of rights and obligations linked with illness Malingering feigning medical or psychological symptoms to achieve something one wants may lead to Self-Regulation the exercise of voluntary control over the self to bring the self into line with preferred standards makes controlling behaviors easier such as eating, sexuality, and smoking can improve health and quality of life
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