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1848 Revolution II

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on 1 July 2015

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Transcript of 1848 Revolution II

Revolution in Europe: 1815-1848
The First Nationalist Wave: Greek Revolt in 1821
Ottoman Empire: A Brief History
Revolution of 1830: the First European Revolutionary Wave
2. French July Revolution: the First Successful Revolution after 1815
1848 Revolution: The Most Widespread Revolutionary Wave in European History
The big picture
1848 Revolution: Two Great Powers in Troubles
1848 Revolution: the Causes
Influence from Industrialization
1848: the Crossroad
the Poet Byron and the Greek
1. Belgian Revolution: the independent Kingdom of Belgium
Austrian Empire
Ottoman Empire
Conquest of Constantinople in 1453
The Siege of Vienna in 1683
Center of Interaction Between the East and the West for Six Centuries
Decline in 1800s, "Sick Man of Europe"
Greek Nationalist Revolt: 1821-1832
The Revolt
A nationalist movement supported by the European power;
Destruction of Ottoman-Egyptian Fleet;
Independence in 1832;
Belgian Revolution
1. Causes
The domination of the Dutch over the economic, political, and social institutions of the Kingdom.
Industrial Revolution
the Under-Represented South
Official Language
2. The Results
International Intervention: different interests involved
The first change to the Vienna Settlement
A popular monarchy was established
France After the French Revolution
Two Kings: Louis XVIII, Charles X
One Document: the Charter
Two Struggling Political Wings: the Moderates and the Conservatives
The Charter
basic civil right;
fair taxation;
freedom of press;
property rights;
pardons for former revolutionaries;
religious tolerance;
Louis-Philippe: 'King of the French by the grace of God and the will of the Nation'
Over 50 countries were affected
Italian States
German States
Austrian Empire
Workers' dissatisfaction
Population explosion and the subsequent hunger and unemployment
Popular press and faster transmission of information
Rise of Middle-Class
February Revolution and the French Second Republic
The Conservatives taking control and the June Days Uprising
Radicals Change France
Louis Napoleon was elected as president and the end of the revolution
Nationalist Troubles in Austria
Various ethnic groups in Austria: Germans, Hungarians, Czechs, Croats, Italians, Serbs...
March, 1848: the uprising of Independence led to the resignation of Metternich
Collapse of the Conservative Power
Liberal Constitution
The Revolutions Fail to Unite
The Nationalist troubles inside the Hungarian Independence: The Non-Magyar Rebellions
Russia's support to Austria
No powerful support base in Vienna: no large middle-class, and rural peasants have no notion of nationalism. Vienna remained intact during the revolution .
Austria reconquered all the lost land at the end of 1848
Most of the Revolutions Failed at the end of 1848
The Common Features
A desire for liberalism
A desire for nationalism
The demand for larger suffrage
Frustration among the people
Did the revolutions change anything?
An increase in suffrage
Abolish serfdom in Austria and Hungary
Some independence
Change of leadership in France
Prussia became dominant among German States
Why did Most of the Revolutions Fail?
Revolutionary Power
Reactionary Power
No agreement about who should rule (radicals/liberals)
No middle class existed to support a revolution (Austria)
Strong leaders wanted power for themselves
Alliance of conservative power
Rural peasants (conservatives) were unconcerned about the revolutionary and nationalist idea
The causes
Different classes in response to the situation
Nationalism: To Be Continued
Who would push for people's wish of Nationalism next?
Nationalism sentiments
Coercion under conservative powers
Middle Class
Radicals: republic
Liberals: liberal constitution
abolition of serfdom and feudalism
No sustainable power
The revolutionaries failed to realize the idea of nationalism
"Iron and Blood"
Full transcript