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Semantics

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Mara-Alyzza Benavidez

on 22 October 2014

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Transcript of Semantics

Semantics

What is Semantics?
Branches of Semantics
Lexical
Semantics Developmental Milestones
By: Monica Vallarta & Mara-Alyzza Benavidez
Compositional
the branch of semantics that studies the meanings of
words
and
word relations
Lexical Semantics
"lexeme" = individual word
is the study of the meanings of
words
and
word combinations
Synonyms
Antonyms
Hyponyms
Denotation
Connotation
Components of Lexical Semantics
Word Relations:
Individual Words:
Polysemy
Homonymy
Compositional Semantics
Components of Compositional Semantics
Individual phrases/sentences:
Phrases/Sentence Relations:
Metaphors
Similes
Implicatures
Mutual Entailment
Asymmetrical Entailment
Contradiction
Paraphrase
Entailment
the branch of semantics that studies the meanings of
phrases/sentences
and
phrase/sentence relations
(words)
(phrases/sentences)
Thank You!
Language Sample
Client:
Jacob
Age:
5 Years Old
Setting:
Child's home playroom and backyard
Conversational Partners:
Monica Vallarta & Mara-Ayzza Benavidez
Describe an item by 3 elements, usually the category it belongs to, then the parts it has, what it is made from, where it can be found or what it is used for.
Name functions of common objects
Semantic Developmental Milestones
Sort items into common closely related groups e.g. Sort items into zoo and farm and bush animals rather than just an animals group.
Name less common categories e.g. Pets, body parts, toys, transport.
Name 5 items that belong in a group e.g. Name 5 things that belong in the clothes group "shirt, shorts, singlet, hat, jumper".
Identify less obvious differences and similarities e.g. The parts of items or where the times are found. For example: "A spider is different from a bee because a spider has 8 legs and a bee has 6 legs." Or "A pencil is different from the paints, because pencils are kept in the pencil tin and the paints aren't."
Concepts: Understand before, after, near, far, first, last, top down.
Name things that go together (associations) e.g. Shoes, and...socks
Define familiar words e.g. "Comfort" means to make someone feel better
Our Findings:
1st Language Sample: Spontaneous Conversational Sample
(Natural Observation)
2nd Language Sample: Structure Testing
(Experimental Manipulation)
Synonyms:
Antonyms:
Hyponyms:
Denotation:
Connotation:
Lexical Semantics: Individual Words
Lexical Semantics: Word Relations
Polysemy:
Homonymy:
Homophones:
Metaphors:
Similes:
Implication:
Compositional Semantics: Individual Phrases/Sentences
Compositional Semantics: Relations between Phrases/Sentences
Paraphrase:
Entailment:
Mutual Entailment:
Asymmetrical Entailment
Contradiction:
*Only names the differences
Why is Semantics Important?
Ambiguity:
Structural
Syntactical
Lexical
uncertainty or inexactness of meaning in language.
"enraged cow injures farmers with axe"
"I saw a man-eating shark at the aquarium"
a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another. It has a different spelling and pronunciation.
words opposite in meaning to another
a word of more specific meaning than a general term or superordinate term
this is the core or central meaning of a word
refers to a meaning that is implied by a word apart from the thing, which it describes explicitly. Words carry cultural and emotional associations or meaning in addition to their literal meanings. Words may have positive or negative connotations that depend upon the social cultural and personal experiences of individuals.
poly
semy
/
"many"
"dealing
with
meaning"
different lexemes with the same form written or spokern. Similar to polysemy in that it refers to a single form of a word with two meanings that are entirely unrelated.
where the pronunciation is the same but the spelling is different
Homographs:
where the standard spelling is the same but the pronunciation differs
a word is polysemous when it has two or more related meaning. In this case the word takes one form but can be used to mean two different things.
onym
syn
/
"word"
"same"
ant
onym
/
"word"
"opposite of"
hyp
/
onym
"below"
"word"
homo
/
onym
"same"
"name"
homo
/
phone
"same"
"speech sound"
homo
/
graph
"written"
"same"
con
/
notation
"in association"
"written symbol"
de
/
notation
"written symbol"
"from"
Example:
angry, mad, upset, enraged
Example:
Weak-Strong Small-Big
Example:
Jupiter is a hyponym of planets
Example:
Dove- A type of pigeon, a wild and domesticated bird.
Example:
childish, childlike (-) youthful (+)
Example:
Bright = Intelligent
Bright = Shiny
Example:
Road, Rode, Rowed
Example:
Homonymy
Homophones
Homographs
a figure of speech containing an implied comparison. It is a word or phrase that is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable to.
Example:
It's raining men!
where two unlike things are compared using "like"or "as"
Example:
"Like two peas in a pod"
the aspect of meaning that a speaker conveys, implies, or suggests without directly expressing.
Example:
Husband: How much longer will you be?
Wife: Mix yourself a drink.
References
Content
relationship between two sentences that have the same meaning but are composed differently
I like dogs more than cats.
I like cats less than dogs.
Example:
Dogs
Cats
>
Cats
<
Dogs
Entailment
Mutual Entailment
Asymmetrical Entailment
two sentences that don't mean the same thing but whose truth depends on the relationship of the two sentences
semantic relationship where one sentence is true and the other is not.
Example:
I love Enchiladas.
I hate Mexican food.
Semantic relationship between two sentences where only one of the sentences must be true for the other to be true.
Example:
I have many dogs
I have 4 dogs.
I have many dogs
=
/
I have 4 dogs.
when each sentence entails the other, each sentence must be true for the other to be true
Example:
Carlos is a man.
Carlos is human.
*Milestone not present during Natural Observation or Structured Testing
*Milestone not present during Natural Observation or Structured Testing
Semantics. (n.d.). Retrieved October 21, 2014.
What is semantics? - All About Linguistics - original
http://www.teachit.co.uk/armoore/lang/semantics.htm#what
https://sites.google.com/a/sheffield.ac.uk/all-about-linguistics/branches/semantics/what-is-semantics
We found that our client aquired 6 out of the 9 milestones for a 5 year old. We found that the spantaneous language sample did not give us enough information, so we went back a second time with a structured language sample.
An Overview
*Milestone not present during Natural Observation or Structured Testing
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