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Copy of puzzle

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by

Crystal Miller

on 8 May 2015

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Transcript of Copy of puzzle

.
Prevalence:
AUTISM
.
Repetitive behavior

Hand-flapping, rocking, jumping and twirling, arranging and rearranging objects, repeating sounds, words and phrases.
Includes intense preoccupations or obsessions.
Spend hours lining up the toys instead of using them to play and adults have items in a fixed placed at home and like routines.
High interest in unusual things or depth knowledge.
Older children may develop tremendous interest in numbers, symbol, dates or science topics.

Today the most successful treatment is Applied Behavior Analysis(ABA).

There are different types of ABA:
1. Discrete Trial Training
2. Early Intensive Behavioral
Intervention
3. Pivotal Response Training
4. Verbal Behavior Intervention





Lidia Milio

With the May 2013 publication of the DSM-5 diagnostic manual all autism disorders were merged into one umbrella diagnosis of ASD. Previously, they were recognized as distinct subtypes, including autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and Asperger syndrome.

What is Autism?
On March 27, 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released new data on the prevalence of autism in the United States. This surveillance study identified that 1 in every 68 children (1 in 42 boys and 1 in 189 girls) have an autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
Presented by:
Bella Estrella
Crystal Miller
Gissella Artieda
About 1 percent of the world population has autism spectrum disorder. (CDC, 2014)
Autism has been found throughout the world in people of all racial, economic and social backgrounds.
Genetic disorders- Inherited cause of intellectual disability.
GI disorders- Chronic constipation, diarrhea or inflammatory bowel disease.
Seizure disorders- Including epilepsy, grand-mal , petit-mal and subclinical.
Sleep Dysfunction
Sensory Processing problems- Perceive ordinary stimuli as painful, unpleasant or confusing.
Pica- Eating nonfood items.
Fragile X syndrome- Most common inherited cause of developmental disabilities.
Tuberous Sclerosis- A genetic disorder that causes non-malignant tumors to form in many different organs, primarily in the brain, eyes, heart, kidney, skin and lungs.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Dyslexia
Bipolar disorder
Anxiety
Depression



The Autistic brain
Imbalances in neurotransmitters have also been found. Neurotransmitters such as Serotonin, which affects emotion and behavior, and glutamate, which plays a role in neuron activity.
Autistic children are born with normal or smaller-than-normal brains, but between 6-14 months they undergo a period of rapid growth and by age 4 they tend to have a brain that is large for their size.
Scientists have also found abnormalities in brain structures, which are believed to have occurred during prenatal development. Abnormal brain structures such as in the corpus callosum, amygdala and cerebellum.
A brain-tissue study has found that children with Autism have a surplus of synapses, or connections between brain cells. This is caused by a slowdown in the normal pruning process that occurs during brain development.
Risk factors:
Interesting People with Autism:
In September 2013, she revealed that she had been struggling with autism and social anxiety since childhood. Hannah often rocked herself back and forth to soothe herself while in uncomfortable situations. When she was a child, medical professionals recommended that she be institutionalized and medicated.
Daryl Hannah
Temple Grandin
American professor of animal science at Colorado State University, a best-selling author, an autistic activist, and a consultant to the livestock industry on animal behavior. She also invented the "hug box", a device to calm those on the autism spectrum. she also was listed in the Time 100 list of the one hundred most influential people in the world in the "Heroes" category.
There is no medical test for autism. Parents and caregivers are usually the first to notice the symptoms. Early diagnosis in infants is important due to their brain plasticity. On average, children are not diagnosed until after age 4.

Social Interaction difficulties

8-10mo- Doesn't respond to name or show interest in people.

Toddlers- Difficulty engaging in social games, doesn't imitate others actions and prefer to play alone.

Children/Adults- Difficulty interpreting what others are thinking and feeling.

Many, but not all, have a hard time regulating their emotions. This is why they may cry or have outbursts in inappropriate, unfamiliar and overwhelming situations.

Frustrating situations may lead to head banging, hair pulling or self-biting.


Communication Challenges

Delay in babbling, speaking and using gestures.
Difficulty combining words into meaningful sentences.
Some go through a stage where they repeat everything they hear, a condition called Echolalia.
Some develop precocious language but have a hard time maintaining a conversation.
Carry on conversations on a favorite interest, without giving others a chance to speak.
Facial expressions, movements and gestures do not match what they are saying.
5. Floor Time
Symptoms
Diagnosis
What causes Autism?
Autism has no single known cause. Given the complexity of the disorder, combined with the fact that symptoms and severity vary case by case. There are many causes that contribute, both genetics and environment play a role.
.
Twin and family studies have shown that some people have genetic predisposition to Autism. Studies have shown that among identical twins, if one child has ASD, then the other will be affected about 36-95% of the time. In fraternal twins, if one child has ASD, then the other is affected about 0-31% of the time. Family history increases the risk for Autism. Parents or relatives of a child with ASD often have problems with social or communication skills themselves.
Parental age- Parents who are 40 and older have a 50% greater risk of having a child with autism than younger parents.
Medications- Pregnant women who have taken medications such as SSRI's, valproic acid and thalidomide, have a higher risk of having children with Autism.
Birth complications- Babies born before 26 weeks of pregnancy , low birth weight and Caesarian section have shown an increased risk for neurodevelopmental problems in general.
Sex- Boys are nearly 5 times more likely than girls to develop Autism.
Environmental toxins- Exposure to heavy metals, for example mercury, and other toxins in the environment can increase the risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Researchers are currently exploring whether such factors as viral infections, complications during pregnancy or air pollutants play a role in triggering Autism Spectrum Disorders.
There are no medications that can cure ASD. However, there are medications that can help some people with ASD function better.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two medicines for the treatment of autism-related irritability. They are risperidone (Risperdal) and aripiprazole (Abilify). They belong to a class of drugs known as atypical antipsychotics.

While these two medicines are the only ones with FDA approval for treating autism-related irritability, physicians can prescribe other antipsychotics (approved for other conditions).But these medicines have not been well studied on individuals with autism.

Medical conditions- ASD is most often seen in children who have certain genetic or chromosomal conditions, such as fragile X syndrome or tuberous sclerosis.
Associated Medical Conditions
HELP US FIND THE MISSING PIECE
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Autism are both general terms for a group of complex disorders of brain development.
These disorders are characterized in varying degrees by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors.
Genetics
Environmental factors
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