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MY GEOGRAPHY PROJECT ON BOX HILL

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tom nicholls

on 11 February 2014

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Transcript of MY GEOGRAPHY PROJECT ON BOX HILL

WHAT IS THE EFFECT(S) THAT TOURISTS HAVE ON BOX HILL? By Tom Nicholls.
Introduction
Box Hill is an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty found in the North Downs (chalk uplands) in Surrey, approximately thirty kilometers (nineteen miles) south-west of London. It is most famous for its Box Trees, which are are one of the most northerly grown of the specie because they require a Mediterranean climate to grow, they grow from 2-12 metres and hold 40% of the UK's Box Trees. The National Trust owned area has approximately 1200 acres and is home to about one million tourists per year ( before the Olympic Cycling race in London 2012, which came through Box Hill, specifically ZigZag road), and since the Olympics it has increased to approximately 1.2 million. These days people visit because they would go for a walk, cycle, horse ride, mountain bike or to run. They would also go to go for a picnic and admire the lovely view over the South of England.

At the top of the hill there is clay and flint, which is very fertile, and chalk at the bottom, which is very dry, porous and not rich in nutrients. There are a lot of insects to be found on the hill: fourteen species of butterfly, endemic species such as the Box Hill Bug (now known as the stink bug), the world's largest specie of slug, the Ash Black, and the only type of tarantula in the UK, the Purse Web.

Box Hill was a very popular tourist attraction in the early 1900s by the Victorians (two million people per year). It was mainly used for walks in their 'Sunday Best'. The Victorians came down from London to Box Hill/Westhumble station and they would walk up Burford Spur to the top of the hill. There was much more erosion in those days due to the number of people visiting. In those days the average person would walk approximately two miles but today the average person walks two hundred metres because they take their car up to the car park at the visitors centre. It shows how lazy we are today!

Box Hill also has a few designations: SSSI - site of special scientific interest, SAC - special area of conservation, AONB - area of outstanding natural beauty, CP - country park and it is also part of the metropolitan green belt around London.
AIMS AND INVESTIGATIONS
Results (Shown by Graphs)
Explanation of Results
HYPOTHESES
Vegetation:


My hypothesis for plant abundance was that the further away from path I got, the abundance of the plant would increase.

My hypothesis for species richness was that the further away from the path I went, the amount of different species would increase.

My hypothesis for bare ground was that the further away from the path I got, the amount of bare ground would decrease.

My hypothesis for maximum plant height was that the further away from the path I went the maximum plant height would increase.

My hypothesis for soil depth was that the further away from the path I got the soil depth would increase.

My hypothesis for infiltration rate was that the further away from the path I went the infiltration rate would increase.


Environment:


My hypothesis for the most effected location, due to the tourism, was Burford Spur. Because it is the main place where people go on Box Hill. Therefore it would be, according to me, the place where there would be most litter, dog foul etc.
Explanation of the results of the Effects of Tourism on Vegetation
Looking at these results I found out that the further away from the path I went, the more broad leafed grass there was. I think the fact that there is more broad leafed grass away from the path is because when the tourists walk on the path they trample on the broad leafed grass and therefore prevent the broad leafed grass from growing.

I found out that the amount of fined leafed grass increased up to six metres and then decreases at eight metres. I think this has occured is because the the tourists trample on the grass at zero metres and not from two metres onwards. When you get to eight metres there are so many other plants there is not enough room for it to grow!

I also found out that the the further away from the path I got, the more salad burnetts there were because when the tourists trample on the path they prevent the salad burnetts from growing but the tourists don't trample often off the path so the plants can grow more easily.

The number of plantains in the quadrat was puzzling because the number increased up to four metres and then decreases from then on. So the number of plantains at certain points on and off the path varied.

The number of dandelions increased the further way from the path I got because the tourists do not trample of the path as often as on the path, allowing for the dandelions to grow more easily.

The number of mosses increased the further away from the path I went because the the tourists did not trample on the mosses because they were off the path.

However, the number of patches of bare ground in the quadrat decreased the further away from the path I got because bare ground is where nothing is growing and since the tourists trample on the path,
preventing the plants from growing, the more bare ground there will be.

All of my hypothesis were correct.
Explanation of Results for Infiltration Rate and Soil Depth
The infiltration rate on the path was slower because the further away from the path, the more plants there were and so there are more plants to soak up the water off the path than on the path and the soil off the path was less compact, providing a higher infiltration rate.


Looking at my results the soil depth is varied but the distances further away from the path tend to have greater soil depth than those nearer the path.

At zero metres the soil depths are all roughly the same (about 90mm).
At two metres the soil depth ranges from 94mm-115mm. The average was 105mm.
The soil depth is greatest at four metres. There is a huge range between 71mm (which was the smallest depth recorded) and 140mm (which was the largest depth recorded). These results are puzzling because my friend Charlie put the soil pin in the ground every time, maybe it was just a hard piece of ground or it was a human error.
The soil depth at six metres varied from 89mm to 119mm. The average was 100mm.
At eight metres the soil depth stayed roughly the same (about 108mm).
At ten metres the soil depth varies from 91mm to 122mm and the average was 114mm.

My hypothesis was partly correct because, apart from the recordings at four metres which were very high (and maybe anomalous), the soil depth (the average) did increase the further away from the path I went. So apart from four metres my prediction was correct.
Explanation of Soil Depth Experiment Results
Looking at my results the soil depth is varied but the distances further away from the path tend to have greater soil depth than those nearer the path.

At zero metres the soil depths are all roughly the same (about 90mm).
At two metres the soil depth ranges from 94mm-115mm. The average was 105mm.
The soil depth is greatest at four metres. There is a huge range between 71mm (which was the smallest depth recorded) and 140mm (which was the largest depth recorded). These results are puzzling because my friend Charlie put the soil pin in the ground every time, maybe it was just a hard piece of ground or it was a human error.
The soil depth at six metres varied from 89mm to 119mm. The average was 100mm.
At eight metres the soil depth stayed roughly the same (about 108mm).
At ten metres the soil depth varies from 91mm to 122mm and the average was 114mm.

My hypothesis was partly correct because, apart from the recordings at four metres which were very high (and maybe anomalous), the soil depth (the average) did increase the further away from the path I went. So apart from four metres my prediction was correct.
Explanation of Maximum Height Plant Results.
Summarising my results the further away from the path from the path I went the higher the plants were.
On the path (zero metres) the tallest plant was measured at 105mm.
At two metres off the path the tallest plant was measured at 94mm.
At four metres off the path the tallest plant was measured at 168mm.
At six metres off the path the tallest plant was measured at 191mm.
At eight metres off the path the tallest plant was measured at 475mm. This is a huge increase from the previous height. I think this happened because if people go off the path then they will not go eight metres off the path they are more likely to go six, or less, metres off the path.
At ten metres off the path the tallest plant was measured at 499mm.

I found out that my hypothesis was correct.
We used the following equipment:



Equipment Used
Our aim was to investigate the impact of tourism on the vegetation and environment of Box Hill.

Vegetation: To measure the effects of tourism on the vegetation at Box Hill we did a Trampling Investigation on seven different topics on and off the path up Burford Spur. We measured ten metres, with a tape measure, from the centre of the path.


Every two metres we put down the quadrat and recorded how many of the twenty five squares had the following things:

Plant Abundance: To do this we put down the quadrat every two metres and recorded the amount of squares, out of twenty five, a certain plant was found.

Species Richness: To do this we put down the quadrat every two metres and recorded all the different species in the quadrant.

Bare Ground: To do this we layed down the quadrat every two metres and recorded the amount of squares that there were no plants found, only soil.

Maximum Plant Height: To do this we put the quadrat down every two metres and measured the height in mm with a metre ruler.

Soil Depth: To do this we put down the quadrat every two metres. Then, the same person (to make it a fair test) put a soil pin into the ground and kept their fingers at the exact point where the soil pin couldn't go any further and measured it with a metre ruler in mm. We repeated this five times so we could get an average.

Infiltration Rate : To do this we banged an infiltration tube into the ground with a block of wood at 0m and 10m. We then put 1cm of water into the tube, that we measured with a ruler, and at the same time we started the stop watch and recorded how long it took for the water to be absorbed by the plants.

Environment: To find out the effects of tourism on the environment at Box Hill we did and E.I.A test for four different locations on Box Hill: Burford Spur, the Visitors Centre, the View Point and Lodge Hill (see on map on next slide). We then scored each location from 0-4 (0 being the best and 4 the worst) for the following aspects: litter, dog foul, noise, vandalism, space and then we added all of the scores up to get a total for each location. I also took a few pictures from the view point. The E.I.A test was not scientific, it was simply our opinion.
Conclusion
Explanation of Results of E.I.A Tests.
These results are subjective so they are just my and my group's opinion and they are not scientific.

Looking at my results I found out that Burford Spur's total score for its test was seven out of a possible twenty four. It scored reasonably well because although many tourists walk up it, it is quite an open area with fresh air.

The Visitors Centre's total score was twelve out of twenty four. It achieved this score because it had quite a lot of rubbish on the floor, there was a road right by it and the air was polluted by smokers.

The View Point's score was also seven out of twenty four because it was very similar to Burford Spur: although it is visited a lot it is quite an open area with fresh, unpolluted air.

Lodge Hill's score was one out of twenty four because it had no pollution or litter, only a tiny bit of noise from the road five hundred yards away.

My hypothesis was not correct because the Visitors Centre received the highest total, not Burford Spur. This is because the visitors centre is the most visited part of Box Hill because you can eat, smoke and buy a souvenir from the shop, where at all the other places you can't.
In Conclusion, I found out that tourism does have an effect on the environment and vegetation on Box Hill because the Visitors Centre is the most 'touristy' place on Box Hill and that is what scored the highest on our E.I.A test out of the four locations. I also know that tourism has an effect on the vegetation because the tourists tend to walk more on than off the path and off the path is where more plants were allowed to grow than on the path because the tourists prevent the plants from growing.

In the future, to improve the project's reliability and accuracy, we could make E.I.A test more scientific and less subjective. We could do this by not just having our own group's opinion but we could take the opinion of all the year's groups and take the average. We went to Box Hill during the Autumn (specifically October 9th), but to improve the project even further, we could take a recording in each season to see if the amount of tourists varied per season and to see if this had an effect or not.

I had a really enjoyable day and found out a number facts that I didn't know before. I also enjoyed the fact that I visited a location for the Olympics which I had not been to before. the I want to do the project again because I could get a more accurate reading if I recorded some more results in a different season. I really enjoyed writing up the project and transferring the results onto Prezi. But the most important thing was I had FUN!
A Map To Show The Four Different Locations for the E.I.A Test

Bottle of water.

Infiltration tube.
Stopwatch
Block of wood
Soil Pin
Quadrat
Infiltration kit
Tape measure
Clipboard and pencil
Dandelions
Plantains
Bare Ground
Fine leafed grass
Broad Leafed Grass
Mosses

Bibliography, Glossary and Appendix
Geographical Words
Endemic: The certain plant or animal belongs to a certain place.
Hypothesis: A prediction.
Quadrat: A square made up from smaller squares that sections off all things other than the area that you want to gain information from.
Websites and Programmes Used
Google images: http://www.google.com/imghp
Microsoft Word and Excel.
Prezi.
Juniper Hall Study Centre
Contents Page
1. Contents Page
2. Introduction
3. Hypotheses
4. Equipment
5. Investigations
6. Map showing E.I.A test locations on Box Hill
7. Graphs
8. Explanation of Results
9. Conclusion
10. Bibliography, Glossary and Appendix

The Y axis are dfferent because of the total that we gave each location varied.
View Point at Box Hill
Picture of people walking on Burford Spur during Victorian times.
Map of Box Hill in relation to South east England
Full transcript