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A2 STUARTS

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Steven Boot

on 19 October 2017

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Transcript of A2 STUARTS

Stuart Britain and the Crisis of Monarch
1603-1702
Overview
People
Ideas
Events
Welcome to A2 History! YAY!
AS

The Interregnum
1649- 1660

Key Questions
1,How far did the Monarchy change?
2,To what extent and why was power more widely shared during this period?
3, Why and with what results were there disputes over religion?
4,How effective was opposition?
5, How important were ideas and ideology?
6, How important was the role of key individuals and groups and how were they affected by developments?
George Villiers



Charles II



James II


William and Mary



Queen Anne

History A2 - Stuart Britain and the Crisis of Monarchy 1649-1702
What is the situation in FEB 1649?

Religion? Politics?
Social? Finance?
Foreign Policy?
1 - The Commonwealth
1649-53
2 - The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell
1638-58
3 - the Protectorate of Richard Cromwell
1658-9
4 - The path to Restoration
1659-60
5 - the Interregnum in perspective
Lesson 1 - 2

I can...
define and understand the chronology of the interregnum.
describe and explain Oliver Cromwell
draw on my previous knowldge to predict events.
'The events of January 1649 constitutes a truly revolutionary moment. The abolition of monarchy, the abolition of the House of Lords, the closely linked abolition of the Church of England and the principle that all men and women ought to be members of a single national Church, represent the destruction of those very institutions around which men and women organized their view of the natural order in the world'.

Revolution and Restoration edited bu Hojn Morrill (Collins and Brown, 1992)
Important Questions....
Who was the power in England?
How effective was opposition?


Feb 1649
- The Rump Voted to abolish
monarchy
thus creating a
REPUBLIC
2nd Jan 1650
-
The Engagement Act
(All adult males had to declare loyalty to the Commonwealth)
July 1650
-
The Treason Act
(illegal to deny the authority of the Commons)
1st Problems
Ireland
Scotland
Working in two groups you will design a presentation on
IRELAND
and
SCOTLAND

1 - You presentation must answer the question -
'How successful was Cromwell in Ireland/Scotland?'.
2 - Use the handouts provided and your own research to research and record.
3 - Your presentation (google slides) must include...

Background information
The situation in 1649
Overview of events and key PIE (people/ideas/events)
Analysis of DBL to evaluate the overall success
Maps and images to illustate your points
Relevant conclusions

YOU WILL PRESENT NEXT WEEK!

Do Now...

Find 5 facts about
Oliver Cromwell

Focus on
background
and
personality
!
Lesson 2-3

I can...

evaluate Cromwell's success in Ireland and Scotland
understand how other pressure groups in England were dealt with
Plan my way through an investigation


The Chronology
:

The Rump / Commonwealth 1649 - 53
Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell 53-58
Protectorate of Richard Cromwell 58-59
Path to Restoration 59
The Levellers:
They did try impeach Cromwell for High Treason
Proved weaker than it appeared.
Few members of the army would follow them into open protest (800/40,000)
Members of the army had become politicized but not radicalized.
Wanted PAY - this somewhat provided.
1649 saw improved harvest, better wages and higher prices.
Few officers supported them.
Mainly focused in London.
Never produced a long term plan.
Threatened land owners

The Diggers:
Too visionary for its time?
Fairfax investigated Gerard Winstanly and William Everard
Army supervised the destruction of their site and crops.
At no point did their numbers exceed a few hundred.

Discussion: Was the Rump a success?
Home Learning
-
Make notes on page 137-144
Lesson 4-5

I can...
describe and explain England's attempt at Republicanism
analyze and evaluate the success of 1653-59
work as part of a team to complete a task
The Rump (Dutch War etc.) Kainath
Nominated Assembly - 1653 Feroza
Instrument of Government (1653-7) and
First Protectorate Parliament (1654-7) Nali
Major-Generals
- 1655-7 Sadika
Second Protectorate Parliament
- 1656-8 Umelbaneen
Humble Petition and Advice and Third Protectorate

- 1657-8 Pavlina
Driving Question:

To what extent was Cromwell a more successful ruler than Charles I?
How successful was Cromwell in...?

Ireland
: https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1dUAvWOWgzHfxijKVcZ2NFGgBDBVjUX4DwRDXodw-53E/edit

Scotland
: https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1SNqi6dPqputOF271JdgcMjR2FaHixoryJmHGKoo2Giw/edit#slide=id.p
Interpretation:

The Rump did not idle away in its time.The laws relating to debtors had been eased. The poor need no longer languish in jail, their families beggared, while even rich men evaded their debts. Legal proceedings would be written in a normal hand rather than in a script which only the trained could decipher. The Elizabethan statute requiring weekly attendance at the parish church was repealed. The special needs in the North, Wales and Ireland catered for the Acts to assist the propagation of the gospel in those regions. The Rump's achievements were not divisory, especially when it was simultaneously struggling to survive and to raise money.

(The English Republic, 1649-60, by Tony Barnard)
So, why did Cromwell end the Rump:

1 - Cromwell's own vision of a Godly nation and political settlement.
2 - Fear over what the Rump's bill for a new representative.
3 - The Rump's cutting of the army budget.
4 - Parliamentary controls off the army commands.
5 - Preventing the ungodly returning to political power.
6 - The conservatism of the Rump - 22 refused to sign an oath approving of the regicide and the removal of the House of Lords.
7 - This was the worst economic period of the 17thC. There was not the funds to start reform.
8 - Threat from Ireland and Scotland
9 - Fear of radical religious groups
10 - The Dutch War

What do we need to know?
Research Guidance:

Gather facts (people, dates, events, figures)
Gather facts for each branch of research (PSE/DBL/PIE)
Gather images, diagrams, tables etc to be used as evidence to support what you say
Find interesting Case Studies-Stories
Make a note of where you got your information from
Write it in your own words or quote correctly when copying facts from a source.
Cover - Domestic Policy / Foreign Policy / People / Ideas / Events / Rise / Features / Fall / Primary and secondary views / Anything else that you feel is relevant!

You will produce a two sided handout for everyone in the group -

Now, and home leanring:

Activity 1
- Choose a period you would like to research and record.

Activity 2
- Conduct research and design a two page handout (I will copy these for everyone).

Your research and record should be finished by Lesson 2 next week!

Activity 3
- Compare. analyse and evaluate findings (next week)

Activty 4
- What was Charles a successful/unsuccessful ruler? What made Cromwell a successful/unsuccessful ruler?



Session 7-8

I can...

identify the key turning points between 1653-58
analyse and evaluate the success of each 'experiment'.
identify the success and failures of Charles and Cromwell
answer the driving question
Nominated Assembly - 1653
Instrument of Governement
- 1653-7
First Protectoate Parliament
- 1654-7
Major-Generals
- 1655-7
Second Protectorate Parliament
- 1656-8
Humble Petition and Advice
- 1657-8
Driving Question:

To what extent was Cromwell a more successful ruler than Charles I?
To do by first week back...

1, Complete your double A4 handout.
2, Share with
ME
and
EVERYONE
in the class!
3, Read and analyze information sheets.
4, Use the handouts and your own knowledge to complete the A4 success sheet.
5,
Think about:

To what extent was Cromwell a more successful ruler than Charles I?
How should this question be answered?
Sessions 9-10

I can...
review the successes and failures of The Rump
understand and debate attempts at a Republic
provide reasons for there failure

Levellers and Digger?
Ireland and Scotland?

So, why did Cromwell ened the Rump? What needs to be taken into account when attempting to build a stable Republic?

1 - Cromwell's own vision of a Godly nation and political settlement.
2 - Fear over what the Rump's bill for a new representive included.
3 - The Rump's cutting of the army budget.
4 - Parliamentary controls off the army commands.
5 - Preventing the ungodly returning to political power.

Other issues

22 members refused to swear an oath
The Rump became more Conservative
Economic Crisis - worst Economic Crisis of the 17th Century
Threat from Ireland and Scotland
Fear of radical groups
The Dutch War
Radicals - wanted reform
Relationship between Parliament and the New Model Army
'Between 1640 and 1659, two hundred apocalyptic works were published. This aided the emergence of Fifth Monarchism as a loose religious and political movement. The failure of the Rump to usher in the 'rule of saints' saw Fifth Monarchists become more clearly defined and more vocal and active in calls for a hagiocracy. Major General Thomas Harrison, as part of his broad movement, came to be seen as a man, through his position in the army and relationship with Cromwell, who was central to Fifth Monarchist hopes that Christ's kingdom could be established in England.

Adapted from Major-General Thomas Harrison by David Farr (Ashgate 2014)
Home Learning

Make notes on 145 - 156
Complete Cromwell and Charles table
Nominated Assembly - 1653
Instrument of Governement
- 1653-7
First Protectoate Parliament
- 1654-7
Major-Generals
- 1655-7
Second Protectorate Parliament
- 1656-8
Humble Petition and Advice
- 1657-8
HOME LEARNING
:

Make notes from page 152-156
Talking Points
Was Cromwell a King or a Dictator or a Lord Protector?
Why did each experiment fail?
Who was to blame: Cromwell or MPs? Someone else?
Cromwell: failure or success? Hero or villain? Why?
Common themes?
Was it a 'cloaked military dictatorship?

You first 25 mark essay will be next week
Session 11-12
I can
identify and explain the key features of the Republic
Analyze the successes and failures of the Republic
Follow this link and watch the 5 part documentary!
Start at 5:00mins
'The army did not bring about the Restoration - it acquiesced in it. It acquiesced because it was isolated from a social base by a sea of popular hostility. The army was the cause of the political instability because of its constant intervention in politics, and especially the military coups of April and October 1659. The unpopularity of the army was due further to taxation required to maintain it. A Fifth Monarchist had warned in March 1659 that the desire to save the cost of the army would be a great temptation to restore the Stuarts. The aim of the movement that won control in the early months of 1660 was to get rid of the army and restore rule of Parliament.'

Adapted from Revolution and Counter-revolution in England, Irealdn and Scotland 1658-60 by Brian Manning, 2003
The Dutch War

The army saw the Dutch (Protestants) as a natural ally.
Many English radicals had gone there for safety.
The Dutch lost economic adv when England passed the Navigation Act in 1651.
This said that only English ships could bring in goods to its colonies and only English ships could bring fish into England.
There were clashes at sea until 1655 when a Naval engagement pushed the two countries to war
This stoked army resentment. Money was being spent on the navy and not the army.
The Rump was accused of using the Navy against the Army.
The Army did not like fighting a Protestant nation.
The Dutch eventually agreed to help the English fight the Spanish.
Biddle's Case

He was a teacher!
He denied the Trinity and the divinity of Christ.
He was interrogated by Parliament.
They decided he should be imprisoned and his book burnt.
This was evidence that Parliament was trying to control Religion over Cromwell.
This is one reason Cromwell dissolved Parliament in 1655.
Spanish War

Many countries agreed to ally with England.
This made England stronger to attack Spain
The setting would be the Spanish Colonies in the New World
England had 150 war ships available.
Cromwell accused the Spanish King of being the biggest threat to the Protestant cause.
Some doubted this policy - Lambert
A propaganda war ensued.
The target was initially Haiti - due to bad planning this failed and so the English chose to attack Jamaica instead.
This proved economically and strategically better.
The Spanish reacted by closing its Ports to British ships
Piracy spread in the area.
Some criticized Cromwell heavily for the effect on British trade.
Others saw France as the bigger threat
But, the French King tolerated the Huguenots
Cromwell was convinced France would make a better ally than enemy - a treaty was agreed.
How could England align with France but be at war with Spain? Both were catholic countries.

Sessions 14-15
I can...

Identify reasons for the failure of Richard Cromwell
Analyze reasons for the return to Monarchy
explain the describe the role of General Monke in the Restoration.
Activity :
Read handout on Richard Cromwell or Monke and describe him in your own words.
Prepare to share your findings
Activity 1:
Talking Points:

The Third Protectorate
The New Model Army
Return to Rump
The Quakers
Key Groups-
a) Civilian Cromwellians / Presbyterians
b) Army Leaders
c) Quakers
d) Royalists?
e) Booth
A2 Question - Page 152
Session 15-17

I can..

describe and explain the key events between 1558 - 1660
identify the most significant factor for the Restoration

Today's Interpretation

When the monarchy was restored in 1660, a systematic attempt was made to turn the clock back, but the memories of the traumas of the 1640s and 1650s could never be erased. They left a legacy of fear and division, especially in religious matters, that could not be allayed and that shaped the nature of Restoration politics both inside Parliaments and more widely. The legacy contributed to the downfall of James and the Revolution of 1688-9.

The Stuart Parliaments, 103-1689 by David L Smith, 1998
Activity 1:
Talking Points:

The Third Protectorate
The New Model Army
Return to Rump
The Quakers
Turning points
-

Haselrig and the Rump rejected the 'Fundumentals of our Good Old Cause'
This alienated the Army
George Booth's uprising, Aug 1659
Lambert's troops becoming more radical - Link to Quakerism
Growth of Quakers
Where did the Political Nation sit? anti-radical and anti-Quaker
Derby Petition
The Committee of Safety - reaction?
return of the Rump - Dec 1659
Monck (with Fairfax) reinstated the Rump and returned MPs removed during Prides Purge - The Long Parliament.
Parliament dissolves itself for free elections.
This resulted in the
CONVENTION PARLIAMENT - 25th April 1660
Declaration of Breda
Using your understanding of the historical context, assess how convincing the arguments in Extract 1 and Extracts 2 and 3 are , in relation for a return to a conservative, parliamentary based settlement by 1660 after the division in the Political Nation from 1640.
Exam Center
Question 1:
Question 2:
Home Learning
- Make notes from pages
Court and Favorites
Religion
Character and Personality
Parliament
Session 18-19

I can..

Explain and describe the Restoration
identify problems faced by Charles II
Examine the role of the Convention Parliament.

T/P/S
1 -
WHY DO WE RETURN TO MONARCHY?
2 - What problems did Charles II face in 1660?
Activity 1
- Mind Map the problems faced by Charles II using the handout given to you by your teacher.

Indemnity
Land Settlement
Disbanding the army
Constitution
Finance
Religion
Militia

Use one color for the
PROBLEM
and another for
SOLUTION.

Title your work 'The Convention Parliament 1660'
Activity 3 - Presentation:

1 - Select one of the areas of study
2 - Carry out independent research and record on you chosen area
3 - Produce a presentation and handout to be given to the class in 2 weeks.

Activity 2 -
The Cavalier Parliament 1661 - 79

1, What was the general make up of this Parliament?
2, What was the attitude of this Parliament?
3, What legislation, restricting the Kings power, continued to stand?
4, How did these change / How were they amended?
5, How did the Parliament strengthen the Kings power
Parliament / Parties
King, Favourites and Parliament
Finance and Foreign Policy
Religion, Court and Character -
Session 20 and 21
I can...
analyze and critique Charles II's early reign
identify the problems and solutions of Charles early reign
analyse the role of favorites in Charles Court
Activity 1 -
The Cavalier Parliament 1661 - 79

1, What was the general make up of this Parliament?
2, What was the attitude of this Parliament?
3, What legislation, restricting the Kings power, continued to stand?
4, How did these change? / How were they amended?
5, How did the Parliament strengthen the Kings power
Talking Points:
a Clarendon
b The Cabal
c - Parliament
d - Danby
e - Royal Declaration of Indulgence
f - Test Act 1673

Activity 2
-
a: Using your home learning - Make a list of the problems faced by Charles II
b:Write down the solutions to these problems.
Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley and Lauderdale
Clarendon
Danby
Home Learning
1) Work on your personal presentation and handout for after half-term.
2) Take notes from pages 169-175
3) Research member of the Cabal.
25:50
Session 22 and 23
I can...
explain and analyze the different interpretation of Charles II's policies.
evaluate the success of Charles II Financial policy
debate if there was a move towards Absolutism and Catholicism.
Was there an aim for:
1: Catholicism?
2: Absolutism?

The King WAS seen to be Pro Catholic and favor high church ritual AND a French style government.

The CABAL
Current thinking is that the Cabal were not united towards one goal.
They were willing to discredit each other - faction fighting
Rivalry between Buckingham and Arlington
Tradition view is that
Clifford
was the most important. However new research suggest that
Arlington
enjoyed similar power to Clarendon.
Arlington
- attended Parliament, member of Privy Council and sat on Committee for Foreign Affairs.
Clifford
led on Fiance outdoing
Ashley
Lauderdale
- spent most of his time in Scotland therefore not very sign in England. Lost most his influence on failure of Union between the two kingdoms.


Charles got most of his information from informal contacts rather than Privy Council. He turned to people such as Henry Coventry.
Charles' policy , such as the Treaty of Dover, suggested he aligned more with Louis XIV
If Charles had won his wars he could have ruled without Parliament? And would have destroyed Naval rivals.

New theories suggest Charles was more open to an Anglican policy and saw Parliament as being very important in running the country.
The King vetoed only TWO bills from the Cavalier Parliament suggesting he agreed with it.
Was this relationship only because of FINANCE? And he need for money?
Although Finance and Foreign Policy do suggest a pro catholic/absolutist approach?
In July 73 - James and Clifford become officially Catholic and a rumor emerged stating that the Catholics were already in high office.
Royal prerogative was linked to Catholicism and Absolutism.
Did Charles realize the limits to his power?
Was he a man with a plan? Or an opportunist?

Let's make our own minds up!



Charles II and Finance
1, Read the handout given to you by your teacher
2, Complete the handout below.
Danby

Rise

• Sir Thomas Osborne – MP for York in 1665
• He attached himself to Buckingham
• 1668 – Joint Treasurer and the then sole treasurer for the Navy.
• By 1675 he was the King’s official Chief Minister
• Attitudes at the time painted him as the face of Catholicism and Absolutism.
• He therefore became a scapegoat for all the ills of the time.
• Research concentrated on the control he shared with the King, his selfish use of Parliament and its members, his system of rewards.
• He wrote letters to his Parliamentary friends in order to win their support and vote in the house.
• His main weapon was to threaten to dissolve the house – this worried members as some were elected back in 1661.
• This contemporary view showed Danby to have the control of about 250 MPs.
• Opponents saw Danby trying to create a Scottish system under Lauderdale. Here, Parliament was almost irrelevant when compared to Royal Prerogative.
• The also saw the impt of the British Parliament when compared to the French System.
• This led to much propaganda at the time.
• HOWEVER - new research has questioned this:
• It claims he never had complete confidence from the King – Charles did not approve of his methods of policies.
• The Cabal tried to deliver the Kings message – Danby trying to dictate it.
• The King did not see how his wishes could come to realization through Danby.
• Therefore, Danby found that the King often followed his own policies in secret. This was also the same for Parliament.
• Country, as opposed to court members, did not approve of his attempts to influence MPs.
• MPs felt they should represent their constituencies rather than individuals
• New evidence suggests Danby followed a Protestant line of policies – therefore suppressing Catholicism (although this was needed to win MPs support).
• He supported the Test Act.
• Danby was furthermore pro Dutch – and pressured the king to form an alliance here.
• He also engineered the Marriage between Charles’ daughter Mary with William of Orange (future monarchy!)
• However he failed to win Parliaments confidence – he was too much associated with Absolutism and Catholicism – this led to mistrust.
• He used unpaid volunteers and the censorship law – leading to a link with Absolutism.

Fall

• Despite the improving financial situation – Danby was doomed to fail.
• Propaganda had made Danby appear all powerful – however he did not rule of weak King – perhaps he was there at the will of Charles and could therefore be removed easily?
• Danby was already in a weak position by 1678
• Like his father, Charles would be willing to sacrifice individuals.
• 2 issues led to his downfall – Religion and Foreign Policy.
• 1 - He attempted to get subsidies from France and thus avoid calling Parliament.
• 2 – He failed to reveal the details of the Popish Plot – and therefore was strongly liked to the return of Catholicism.
• These two exampled were used by MPs to pressure the King.
• On top of this Danby failed to dismiss Army regiments that were longer needed for war.
• Money + Popish Plot + Army + No Parliament =
• In order to prevent Parliament taking further action against Danby he had him sent to the Tower.
• Thought - Perhaps, Parliament felt more comfortable to go after James because they successfully removed Danby?
Session 24-25
I can..
explain and analyze Charles II Religious policy
evaluate the success of Charles II Religious Policy
debate if there was a move towards Absolutism and Catholicism.

Charles II and Religion 1660-78
Home Learning
: Make notes on pages 175-182
Activity 1: Open the GOOGLE DOC titled
Charles II and Religion 1660-78 (https://docs.google.com/document/d/1NXMDaJ1VA7plMLA-tqzC77boTAeiaPY-K9nuT081G6k/edit)

Activity 2: R
ead through the introduction together.
Headings:
Anglicanism
Non conformity
Catholicism
Pause for Thought!

• Were these favorites figures of the past?
• What had really changed since the Restoration? Religion? Finance? Favorites? Court? Political Nation?
• Do we now see Cromwell in a different light?
• How effective was the Restoration Settlement?
• Was there really a move towards Catholicism and Absolutism? Evidence for? Evidence against?

1 - Presentation 2 - Exam Papers
Session 26-17

Evidence of CATHOLICISM and ABSOLUTISM??
Presentations
- Foreign Policy
1669 James Catholicism became public.
In 73' he refused to swear loyalty to the COE
James them married a 15 yr old Catholic Princess.

P184 - What was the Popish Plot?

Parl continued to accelerate the exclusion crisis
Charles accepted the 2nd Test Act in 78' which excluded Catholics from Parl - there was an exemption for James.
In this tension Charles dissolved the cavalier Parl in Jan 79'
a new Parliament 'the first exclusion Parliament' met in March 79 - because he needed money.

First Exclusions Parliament March-May 79
Very different body to the Cavalier Parliament.
Took measures to protect itself in fear of Catholicism 1 - 200,000 to disband Charles' standing army 2 - Act of Habeas Corpus Amendment (May) - restated that cause of imprisonment had to be stated - within three days.
Parl wanted to protect subjects when Catholicism takes over rather than exclude James.
The PP was still gathering momentum
In Parl the Court (opposed to exclusions) outnumbered 2-1 by anti-court.
Charles sent James to Brussels
In 78 Edward Colemans correspondence became public and showed James has been negotiating with France and the Pope
On 30 May - Charles has to promise that any Catholic Monarch had - 1 - No church patronage 2 - Parliament had the power of appointment over civil, legal and military offices.
This was appeasement
On 11 May - One Mp called for James exclusion
This was followed by reading of the exclusion bill on 15th May pushed by Whig Shaftesbury.
21 May - Bill passed 2nd reading 207-128.
Many MPs did not vote - 509 MPs
Charles protected his position and right for this brother to success hm
Charles proroguing Parliament on 27th May
The Duke of Monmouth (James) had been working with Shaftesbury on the exclusion.
He was a protestant and a possible candidate for the throne.
Due to his popularity Charles ended the Parliament.
Charles pushed harder for negotiations with the Dutch and the French.
This was to strengthen their positions if the problems continued.
He also tried to get money from both so he did not have to rely on Parliament.
In 79 Charles became very ill and the Exclusions threat heated up
Charles exiled the Duke on Monmouth (his illegitimate son)
Charles then remodeled his Privy Council and removed ALL his and James opponents (Shaftesbury, Essex and Russell).
He replaced them with younger advisers - The Earl of Sunderland, Sidney Godolphin and Clarendon's son, Laurence Hyde.
There were also purges of county commissions of peace - which put power in the hands of the Loyalists.
Charles also new he had a standing army to turn to. Although this was small.
Charles kept threatening to dissolve the Parliament that had not met yet and so the debate shifted to the streets!
2 - Make notes on Supporters and share
2 - Make notes on Opponents and share
Home Learning-
Make notes 188-194
Question:
'The religious settlement imposed by Charles II on his Restoration failed to solve the religious problems of the previous 20 years'.

Assess the validity of this view.

What were the religious problems of the last 20 years?
Consequences of different aspects of the settlement.
Success and failures?
Plan you answer thematically
Decide your argument
Where the religious problems of his own making?
what were Charles religious policies?
What role did the court play?
The Political Nation?

Session 28-29

I can...
debate the success of Charles' religious policy
Question:
'The religious settlement imposed by Charles II on his Restoration failed to solve the religious problems of the previous 20 years'.

Assess the validity of this view.

Debate:

Large extent

Small Extent
1 - FUT
a - Get a Green pen
b - What do we need for an A/A* essay? (let's make a list)
c - Swap your essay with your neigbor
d - Mark the work against our criteria
e - Give the essay a level and a greade
f - Wrote down 2 WWW and 2 EBI
Session 30 and 31
I can..
self and peer assess
Analyze the evaluate the end of Charles II reign

Talking Points

The Exclusion Crisis

Supporters
- Whigs
Opponents
- Tories

The Second Exclusion Parliament 1680
The Oxford Parliament 1681

Why did it fail?
Charles finance/
Conservatism of the Lords and Church
/Wider support/
Prerogative powers
/loyalism/
Radicalism of exclusion/
Limits of Whig Support/
Persecution
/Scotland
Essay
- Using your understanding of the historical context, assess how convincing the arguments in Extracts 1,2 and 3 are in relation to political divisions to 1865.
See source handout
What do we need to secure an A/A* grade?
Session 32-33

Lesson 1
- Complete past paper under timed conditions

Lesson 2 Activity 1
- JAMES II -



Essay - Using your understanding of the historical context, assess how convincing the arguments in Extracts 1,2 and 3 are in relation to political divisions to 1865.
a) Read information sheet and write 10 bullet points to summarize
b) What power did he have in 1685?
Activity 2 -
1, What was James' main aims?
2, What were the effects of the 1685 rebellion?
3, What did James' first Parliament vote for?
4, What was James' reaction?
5, What were the effects of
Golden versus Hales
?
6, What did James do in Ireland and Scotland?
7, What did the Declaration of Indulgence do?
8, What effect did James' 2nd parliament have?
Home Leaning -

Makes notes of Chapter 21. Pages 195-205
Tim Harris' conclusions from his 2006 book summarized the ambivalence of modern scholarship towards James II:

'The jury will doubtless remain out on James for a long time ... Was he an egotistical bigot ... a tyrant who rode roughshod over the will of the vast majority of his subjects (at least in England and Scotland) ... simply naïve, or even perhaps plain stupid, unable to appreciate the realities of political power ... Or was he a well-intentioned and even enlightened ruler—an enlightened despot well ahead of his time, perhaps—who was merely trying to do what he thought was best for his subjects'
Session 33-34
'It was not, in truth, merely a succession crisis, either, but rather a collapse of political confidence. This collapse can be traced to anxieties about the whole range of Charles II's misgovernace, his subservience to France, the curruption of Parliament, the creation of standing armies, the abuse of law and the persecustion of dissenters, and to even wider concerns about public and private interests'.

Adapted from England in the 1670s by John Spurr
Activity 2 -
1, What was James' main aims?
2, What were the effects of the 1685 rebellion?
3, What did James' first Parliament vote for?
4, What was James' reaction?
5, What were the effects of
Golden versus Hales
?
6, What did James do in Ireland and Scotland?
7, What did the Declaration of Indulgence do?
8, What effect did James' 2nd parliament have?
Read pages 195-197 and produce, on A3 paper, a flow diagram of the key events leading the Glorious Revolution from 1688-89....
Event 1
Event 2
Event 3
Home learning

Makes notes on pages 199-204
William and Mary
Read and makes 10-15 bullet point on William and Mary
How strong a position was James in by 1687?
Session 35-36

Mock Feedback

Where were you in Sep 2015
Where do you want to be in Sep 2017?
FOLLOW UP TIME

1 - What are the top 10 things we need an a 30 marker and a 25 marker?
2 - Swap you answers
3 - Write in the margin the number when you find evidence of the area.
4 - Write down 2 WWW and 2 EBI's for each essay.
5 - Give the paper back
6 - Choose ONE the two essays and rewrite for next week.
The Glorious Revolution

YOU NEED YOUR FLOW CHART
Talking Points -

1- Key events
Home learning
1 - Read the additional material
2 - Notes p. 199-204
3 - Prepare tour arguments
1 - Long term and short term reaction
2 - The Coronation
3 - The Financial Settlement
4 - Scotland and Ireland
Was it a 'Glorious' Revolution?
Proposition
Opposition
10:36
Session 37-38
1 - Long term and short term reaction
2 - The Coronation
3 - The Financial Settlement
4 - Scotland and Ireland
Was it a 'Glorious' Revolution?
Proposition
Opposition

FOLLOW UP TIME

1 - What are the top 10 things we need an a 30 marker and a 25 marker?
2 - Swap you answers
3 - Write in the margin the number when you find evidence of the area.
4 - Write down 2 WWW and 2 EBI's for each essay.
5 - Give the paper back
6 - Choose ONE the two essays and rewrite for next week.
The Financial Settlement
Scotland
Ireland
Home Learning
Notes from chapter 22 and 23
'King James II, having endeavored to subvert the constitution of the kingdom, by breaking the original contract between king and people; and by the advice of Jesuits and other wicked persons having violated the fundamental laws; and having withdrawn himself out of this kingdom; has abdicated the government; and therefore the throne thereby vacant.'


Commons statement on 28th January - only three Tory MPs opposed.
'parliament was finally transformed from an event into an institution'
Session 38-9

1 - Long term and short term reaction
2 - The Coronation
3 - The Financial Settlement
4 - Scotland and Ireland
Was it a 'Glorious' Revolution?
Proposition
Opposition
'parliament was finally transformed from an event into an institution'
Whigs
believed in contract between Crown and Subjects
Monarchs could be removed
Parliament was a check on the crown
Supported Will and Mary - and war with France
Wanted extension of the Toleration Act

Tories
believed in Divine Right
supported limited naval war with France
defended the Church of England
Question: With reference to extracts 1, 2 and 3 and your understanding of the historical context, assess the value of these three extracts to an historian looking at the emergence of parties in he period 1678-1702,.
1 - Read the Extract you have.
2 - Annotate the source using your own knowledge.
3 - Pass the source to the next person
4 - Annotate the new source
5 - What conclusions can you draw?
Home Learning:
Notes on chapter 24
Session 40-41
Activity 1
: Complete past sourced based question - 50 mins
Question: With reference to extracts 1, 2 and 3 and your understanding of the historical context, assess the value of these three extracts to an historian looking at the emergence of parties in the period 1678-1702.
Session 41 and 42
Feedback - SOME WOULD HAVE GOT LEVEL 5 IF YOU ANSWERED THE QUESTION!

Qn 1
1 - Excellent KandU - more relevant detail the better!
2 - Better evaluation - DBL / impact / sign / exaggeration /
3 - Need Breadth and Depth - give reasons / explanation here
4 - Refer to strengths and
limitations
of convincingness of the above.
5 -

Qn 2
1 - Structure - think this through carefully and share in your introduction
2 - Great KandU - now evaluate it!
3 - Stronger summ concl needed - this should build to your final conclusion - which should not be a surprise. SC must address the question
NOT
the most important factor.
4 - Answer the QUESTIONS!
5 - Give context in introduction - eg 1678-1792 - explain both and then...
6, Share your structure in your intro

Take time to plan before writing

REVISE REVISE REVISE

Next week we start overview!
Session 42-43
Religious Toleration
Latitudinarianism
Anglicans
Toleration Act (transubstantiation)
Protestantism (John Tillotson)
Catholics - wars?
Battle of the Boyne
Example Question
'The reign of William III made little difference to position of dissenters' Assess the validity of this view with refernce to the years 1660 to 1701
Government under William and Mary
Political Parties and Ministers - Cabinet Gov

First Parliament
- 1690-95 (Act of Grace/Commission of Public Accounts/ Treason Trial Bill/ National Debt / Bank of England)
Second Parliament
- 1695-98 (Junto Whigs - collapse / Oath)
Third Parliament
- 1698-1700 (Country Position / War taxes / Place Bill)
Fourth Parliament
- 1701 (Act of Settlement / )
Fifth Parliament
- 1701-02 (Abjuration Bill)
Death of William - March 1702
Monarchy
Whigs
Tories
Country Position
To what extent was William III a much weaker monarch in 1701 than in 1681.
Parliament / event
Monarch
Parliament
Interpretation

In constitutional terms the reign on William II was of immense significance. It saw the resolution of many of the knotty issues that had generated political tension under the Stuarts. The fact that the Monarchy was now compelled to be in communion with the Church of England; that the distinction between the ordinary and extraordinary revenue had been swept away and replaced by a system in which parliamentary taxation finded the crown and underwrote a National Debt; that the permanence of Parliament was guaranteed by the Crown's financial dependance as well as by the state; that judges possessed tenure during good behavior and could not be removed at the monarch;s whim; and that the monarch had to conduct foreign policy in collaboration with Parliament; all these developments marked important steps away from the personal monarchy that existed before 1603 and towards the more balanced constitution of the eighteenth century and after.

Adapted from a History of the Modern British Isle, 1603-1707 by David L. Smith 1998
Important Questions....
Who was the power in England?
How effective was opposition?


How was England and Britain different by 1702?

Army and Navy
Balance of Power
Religious Issues
Ireland
Scotland
War
Lets read the conclusion! p.229
Session 43 - Revision - Themes

1 - Parliaments
(Power balance in the Political Nation)
2 - Religion
3 - Finance
4 - Favorites / Character / Court
Prepare a presentation for the group

Cover:
1 - Key features of each Monarch
2 - Most successful - Why?
3 - Least successful - why?
4 - Turning Points
5 - Impact? DBL? PSE?
6 - Sources?
7 - Presentation and handout
Home Learning
- Prepare for timed assessment - REVISE
Start work on your themed presentation
Key Questions

How far did Monarchy Change?

To what extent and why was power more widely shared during this period?

How important was the role of key individuals and groups and how were they affected by developments?

How effective was opposition?

How important were ideas and ideology?

Why and with what results were there disputes over religion/fie/favorites?







Past Paper Question

'The failures of Parliaments between 1621 and 1653 owed more to the MP's than to the rulers.'
Assess the validity of this view

How could you structure this essay?

Thematic?
Chronological?


Past Paper
With reference to Extracts 1 and 2 and your understanding of the historical context, which of these two extracts provides the more convincing interpretation of discontent with Charles I
Example Paragraph -

'The deteriation between crown and parliament in the years 1604 - 1625 was due to James' views on the monarchy.'

Explain why you agree and disagree with this statement.

Throughout James' reign he has been known for his extravagance which was a heavy burden on the Crown's finances and was a major reason for problems between him and Parliament. By 1614 James had managed to be in debt worth of £680,000. His court was a place of luxury, and it was known that he spent a lot of money on his favorites. For example, he gave his friends from Scotland over £40,000 in presents. This angered the English people a lot, as it was not only a matter of him spending so much but also favoring the Scots. On one ante-supper James spent £3,300. The king was fully aware of the economy and high rate of inflation, but he could not help himself but spend carelessly. Robert Cecil tried to help restore relations between James and Parliament, and made James promise that he would not spend the subsidies given by Parliament on favorites. However, James did do this. The Addled Parliament of 1614 had only lasted 8 weeks as Parliament was not willing to grant James more subsidies, and in anger James dissolved the parliament. Overall, this shows that James carelessness with money was a great contribution to deteriorating relations with parliament. However, it can be argued that James' extravagance and lack of self control was exaggerated. He was compared to the previous monarch, Queen Elizabeth, who was careful with her spending and had her court based on formality and dignity. The luxury and livelihood of James' court was not unusual, and the fact that he spent so much money on it made England seem like a strong country, and not one on the verge of economic collapse. Furthermore, he inherited a debt of £800,000 due to Elizabeth's crown land. Financial problems can definitely not be blamed on James solely, as the Great Contract show he was pragmatic and willing to work with Parliament, unlike other monarchs. Therefore, James' leadership when it comes to finances was a greater reason than his views on monarchy when it came to deteriorating relations between Parliament and Crown.




The Interregnum
- a period represented by the lapse in the normal form of government.

Home leanring
MAKE NOTES
Pages - 157 - 160

Parliament / Parties - 2 -
Umelbaneen Pavlina
King, Favorites and Parliament - 2
Sadika and Feroza
Finance and Foreign Policy - 1
Religion, Court and Character - 2 -
Nali Suad
Home learning
Notes from pages 161-168
- Makes note son Clarendon - Page 162
Home Learning
1 - Read through the handout!
2- Prepare some arguments for next week OPP and PROP
Full transcript