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Theories Mind Map
Transcript of Theories Mind Map
Deweys idea of educational experiences include observing and asking questions to find out what children already know, and setting up opportunities
for children to experience the discovery
of things they didn't already know.
Teachers use their knowledge of development
to plan age appropriate curriculum, and document the children's learning experience to support their understanding of the children's thinking.
The measurement of of a projects success being that it leads into the next area of study and the children are left curious, wanting more, and confident in their ability to dive in and satisfy their curiosity.
Makings Sense of the World
"Its Fun" Is Not Enough
Teachers must think of appropriate general knowledge of the world and use it to help children make sense of their surroundings/experiences
Examples: Drawing cardinals and only setting out the correct colors of paint, red and brown. Or to draw the correct amount of legs on an octopus.
Although something may be fun, it doesn't make it a learning experience. In order for it to be a learning something, the student must take something from the experience and possibly wonder, what else or what next?.
Example: "Make-Your-Own" Sundae Celebration, by letting them pick which kind of toppings etc. isn't enough to make them wonder what next? Another way to use this would be to take them on a field trip to see how ice cream was made or find out a way to make home-made ice cream, do something to make it a "fun" educational experience, not just a fun day.
Education and experience are similar but not the same.
Mis-Education: experiences which are not educational
Mis-Education is an activity which lacks planning, purpose, and organization.
Example: Teachers who set up the learning environment, then letting children to explore without offering guidance or suggestions. Setting up random experiences without providing theme, continuity, or purpose.
Important questions to ask when planning::
What skills are involved? How will this activity help this child grow? Etc.
Criteria to be called an "educational experience:
It supports the child's development. It helps the child develop new skills. Etc.
Born in Italy in 1870 Maria Montessori was known to some as "Teacher". Originally trained in medicine, she used observation to determine the needs of children in her work. A brilliant woman and astute observer, Montessori opened her first Casa Dei Bambini (Children's House) in 1907 in the slums of Rome as an attempt to keep the children of working parents out of the streets. Not only did the children come in from the streets, but they became avid learners who loved work and study. Montessori created a school environment to make up for the impoverished conditions of many of the children's homes.She determined that, to be comfortable, young children need furnishings their own size and tools that fit their small hands. Many of these materials were not available for children at this time, so Montessori made many of her own materials.She learned from her students , wrote about her observations and theories and developed an international reputation for her work. By 1913 there were almost one hundred schools in America following Montessori's methods. In 1922 she was appointed a government inspector of schools in Italy. Her opposition to Mussolini's fascism forced her to leave the county in 1934. Three time Nobel Peace Prize nominee, Montessori died in Holland in 1952, leaving educators of every nation a legacy of ideas and a collection of writings that have influenced the way all early childhood programs are structured today.
Known as the "Father of Education" John Dewey actually had a Ph.D in philosophy. He believed education should be child centered, active and interactive, and help make sense of the world around them. Education is a part of life and needs to reflect real home, work, and life situations. And by teaching the individual they are shaping society.
Teachers need to help children understand the world. This should be done by observing what children are ready for. Dewey believed it was the teacher's job to make a curriculum based on the children.
Montessori believed that children who are not allowed to do somethings for themselves, will not learn the skills on how to do it, or problem solving skills.
Provide children with responsibility for keeping the community space clean
Allow large blocks of time for "free work" and play, allow children to structure their own responsibility
Three key things are required for a child-centered environment:
1. Provide real tools that work- This allows them to do real work that interests them thus building their competence.
2. Keep materials and equipment accessible to children- This helps them become responsible for their own learning by allowing them to get what they need and put it away when done.
3.Create beauty and order-Children learn language and other life skills from the environment through sensory experiences. This gives them the key to guide their exploration of the world.
Shame and Doubt
Montessori's observations led her to believe that children are capable of great concentration when they are surrounded by many interesting things to do and given the time and freedom to do them. She thought that as teachers allow children to choose what they will do and how and when they will do it, the teachers have more time to observe and assist children individually.
"Teach little and observe much"
Careful observation, to Montessori, was the key to determining what the children were interested in or needed to learn. Convinced that if children were not learning, adults were not listening carefully enough or watching closely enough..She did not believe that children could not learn and observation is part of her legacy..
A child of this age group is energetic and ready to learn. Their developmental task is to acquire a sense of purpose and the typically developing child is quick at forgetting failures. Willing to listen and learn from teachers, parents, and other children this age group are more actively focused and less defiant.
Like Montessori, Erickson believed that children need real tools and real tasks in order to develop their competence. At this stage the children act less for the sake of individual control and more to get things done. Measured by what they do rather than by who they are, four to five year old's can plan and complete a task independently as is able to cope with and learn from mistakes without feeling guilty for things that don't go as planned.
To support children's development of initiative in the third stage Erickson says that teachers can : encourage children to be independent as possible, focus on gains as children practice new skills, not on the mistakes they make along the way, set expectations that are in line with children's individual abilities and focus curriculum on real things and on doing.
At this stage the toddlers developmental task is acquiring a sense of autonomy without suffering extremes of shame and doubt. A successfully adapting child will develop a strong sense of self and will be able to separate confidently for limited periods of time from parents and primary caregivers.
Demanding to do things for themselves at this age bellowing shouts of "No! Me! Mine! Me do it!" Erikson believed that toddlers struggle to achieve balance between appropriate holding on and letting go in areas such as sharing with friends, relationships with parents and primary caregivers, independent toileting and making choices. Erikson also believed that one of the main barriers for toddlers was over-controlling behaviors from adults who thwart and resist the toddlers growing demands for independence. Erikson believed that adults can foster independence in children this age by giving children simple choices, not giving false choices, setting clear, consistent, reasonable limits, and accepting children's swings between independence and dependence, and reassuring them that both are ok.
This stage is an important time in the development because its outcome determines, to a great extent, the ratio of love and hate, cooperation or lack of it and freedom of expression or tendency to suppress feelings that become part of who we are for the rest of our lives.
First stage of psychological development, the baby's task is to develop trust in himself./herself, the people around her, and the world around her.
Erikson''s two parts to trust:
External - belief that the significant adults in their lives will meet the babies needs
Internal - belief in her own power to effect change and deal with a variety of circumstances.
How to help develop a baby's basic trust:
Holding babies close, having warm physical contact when feeding
Responding right away to their distress
Erickson believed the accomplishment of each developmental stage, lays the foundation down for the next stage,
When a child's needs go unmet, they are unable to develop trust in themselves and the world around them.
Also leads to failure to develop empathy, ability to put yourself in another person's place and understand how they might be feeling.
Piaget claimed that children construct their own knowledge by giving meaning to the people places and things in their world.
He believed that all children pass through the same stages when developing thinking skills. Piaget stressed the importance of play as an important avenue for learning. That children intellectual growth is based partly on physical development and that this development is affected by children's interactions with their environment.
1. Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 18 Months of Age.)Learns through sense and reflexes and can manipulate materials.
2. Preoperational Stage (18 Months to 6 Years.) Forms ideas based on their perceptions. Can only focus on one variable at a time, and overgeneralizes based on limited experience.
3. Concrete Operational Stage (6 to 12 years of age.) Forms ideas based on reasoning and limits thinking to objects and familiar items.
4. Formal Operational Stage (12 years and older) Thinks conceptually and hypothetically.
Piaget believed that children learn from appropriate learning experiences; such as role play
Instead of looking at the correctness of an answer, look at the process it took to get to their answer
Piaget also believed that children all learn at a different pace or the same developmental sequence.
Don't look at the children as a whole classroom, who learn at the same rate and same way. Set up activities for individuals and small groups of children instead of a class group.
Teachers role is helping by knowing that-
Learning is an active process: Direct experience, making errors, and looking for solutions are vital for the assimilation and accommodation of information. How information is presented is important. When information is introduced as an aid to problem solving, it functions as a tool rather than an isolated arbitrary fact.
Learning should be whole, authentic, and "real": Piaget helps us to understand that meaning is constructed as children interact in meaningful ways with the world around them.
Learning and development are interrelated from the child's very first day of life..
Vygotsky's ideas were controversial and he objected to the analysis of children's abilities based on intelligence tests. He thought research should be both qualitative and quantitative.
Vygotsky's work changed the way educators think about children's interactions with others and showed that social and cognitive development work together.
"Education is what is left after you have forgotten all the facts"
- Howard Garnder
The ability to create an effective product or offer a service that is valued in a culture.
A set of skills that make it possible for a person to solve problems in life.
The potential for finding or creating solutions for .problems, which involves gathering new knowledge
According to Gardner, intelligence is:
Identifying each student’s intelligences has strong ramifications in the classroom. If a child's intelligence can be identified, then teachers can accommodate different children more successfully according to their orientation to learning.
~ Theory of Multiple Intelligences ~
“The child begins to perceive the world not only through his [or her] eyes but also through his [or her] speech” - Lev Vygotsky, 1978
Vygotsky has helped encourage conversation between children to share experiences and to promote positive social interaction.
Vygotsky also encouraged teachers to provide opportunities for children to work together.
"But once we realize that people have very different kinds of minds, different kinds of strengths -- some people are good in thinking spatially, some in thinking language, others are very logical, other people need to be hands on and explore actively and try things out -- then education, which treats everybody the same way, is actually the most unfair education."
According to Garner;
All human beings possess all nine intelligences in varying amounts, each person has a different intellectual composition
These intelligences are located in different areas of the brain and can either work independently or together.
If we address the multiple intelligences of our students, we can greatly improve education.