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Transcript of South Africa
Part I The DO's The African National Congress during apartheid era was the biggest and most active organization which participated and executted various acts which brought about change in South Africa. Bishop Tutu was the dean of the church in South Africa. Many people looked up to him and respected him for his knowledge and leadership. This enabled him to gather more followers and easily be guaranteed their commitment.
(African National Congress)
Founded in January 8, 1912
Purpose - "protect all black people's rights by peaceful actions
Goal - "bring an end to apartheid and let the black people vote"
Strategy - "make the country ungovernable"
Spoke out against apartheid
Spoke out in public; speeches were persuading and direct
Played an important role in influencing others and gathering more followers Discover a Leader Step Two 2a.) Discovering a leader isn't an easy task. You must choose someone who is well-equiped in all aspects of an inspring role model. 1b.)Once you have made your organization, gather people with influence who support your idea Nelson Mandela: Discovered by Walter Sisulu
Became leader of the ANC
Had potential, charisma, charm, interest, and energy
When walter sisulu first met Nelson mandela, he immediately spotted
the potential of a leader in him. mandela definitely had the charisma and the
charm which could capture anyone's attention, and he was all "fired up" and ready for the challenge. mandela devoted and sacrificed himself to end apartheid, and was even prepared to give up his own life.
Step Three use a peaceful approach 3a) Nelson Mandela demanded for the ANC to use a peaceful approach to show resistence and disobedience against government policies. They held protests and boycotts. Treason Trial:
ANC holds a defiance campaign against unjust laws
ANC starts following the Freedom Charter
Government declares the Freedom Charter as an act of treason
Charges 156 people under Suppression of Communism Act (Any opposition to government is perceived as communism)
Trial held from 1956-1961
ANC members were found NOT guilty
The trason trial proved that government laws cannot stop the ANC from fighting. wrong needs to be justified and you should always think about the peaceful way first before deciding on the violent route. 3b) Create a new identity that you want foreigners to perceive your country as. PAC:
Ex members from ANC who had different beliefs and hypothetical views started a new organization called PAC (1959)
Belief: Blacks should work alone to achieve their rights
Wanted a more 'Africanist approach'
Used hiphop to represent "vivid illustrations of Black lived experience"
Spread black identity across globe and gathered young audience
The pac wanted to bring together the more artistic, cultural, and historical sides of south africa to the present. they were very peaceful yet they well delivered the message that South africa has a colorful culture and tradition other than just war and crimes. Step Four Form Allies 4a) It can be very useful to form links with other big organizations and companies. This can put economic pressure on the government which can impact the country greatly. But watch out, some of the impacts might be negative. Sanctions and Economic Pressure:
The blacks neededhelp from bigger associations to bring awareness to the government
Starting from 1985, major banks refuse lending money to South Africa
International companies condemned the apartheid policy
Once major banks started cutting down South Africa's investments, sa's economic status dropped severly. the sanctions released in South Africa had two major effects: one - south africa was under a huge debt, but two - black unemployment doubled. 4b) Befriend a political figure in the congress F.W de Klerk:
President of South Africa
Opposed against majority rule
Many blacks, including Walter Sisulu and Nelson Mandela were released from prison under de Klerk's orders
Worked with Mandela to help bring an end to apartheid
Like de klerk, not all afrikaners racially discriminated the blacks. some worked and fought together to bring about change in south africa for the better of both blacks and whites. since de klerk had a lot of power and authority over south africa, it was a great benefit for mandela to have befriended de klerk. they worked together along similar beliefs and goals. however, rebel, here are some things you musn't do... Part II The DON'Ts don't Use violence Yes, it's true. Mandela once said "we must fight fire with fire".
Using violence might create better results in the beginning; or
atleast it may seem so for a while. However, people will eventually
get hurt and as the number of deaths and injuries increase, you must think:is it really worth all the bloodshed? Sharpeville Massacre:
March 21, 1960
Demonstrators gather to protest against pass laws
As the number of demonstrators increase, police become more and more nervous
Eventually police open fire over 300 protestors
Police panicked because two months earlier before the protest, 9 officers were killed by the natives
perhaps The protest COULD have been peaceful. however, the police officers were intimidated by how violent the blacks were previously and the crimes they had committed. majority of the time, violence will lead to negative effects. sixty nine black africans were killed and one hundred and eighty were injured. is violence really the key to get the message through?
Was created after ANC and PAC were both banned from Sharpeville Massacre
Was a secret organization underground
Conducted by Mandela
Was the military wing of the ANC
Carried out many bombings THe MK is another example of a violent approach from the natives.
members of the mk included many whites who had military experiences from wars. they planned acts which had least damage on civilians but most on the government. compared to the sharpeville massacre, less number of people were killed or injured. however, each life is precious. DOn't make enemies Ever heard the saying, 'Make friends with your enemy?" There is nothing good about making enemies. When you make one enemy, their friends will also be your enemy. Inkatha and the Third Force:
Inkatha -political party which opposed some of ANC's movements such as sanctions
Different tribes - Inkatha memebers were Zulus and ANC were Xhosas
Inkatha leader was not popular between the ANC memebers because he had criticised their violence
Inkatha was extremely violent, killing over 3000 people over the course of 3 years
Inkatha was supported by police to disrupt communication between the two parties, which made it difficult to make decisions
the anc had trouble communicating with each other because of the sudden violence created by inkatha. inkatha's violence was never charged or stopped by police because police was behind their acts; they were the third force. since anc were enemies with inkatha, they were also enemies with the police and this resulted in trouble and even more violence. dear rebel, we hope this handbook has prepared you well for your mission to bring about change in your world.
there's injustice around us everywhere but you as an individual have the power to create a phenomenon. carry with you the lessons you have learned from today.
wherever you go, and whatever you do... Always believe in the power of ONE. dear rebel, Now you are ready.