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Transcript of Psychology 151
Scale Development Even though attitudes towards different races are becoming more positive it is only because people are internalizing these feelings
This study developed a scale that successfully measures external verse internal motivation Take Home Message Introduction Social changes in the past years about prejudice
Internal and external factors about displaying prejudice
Previous studies do not look at the motivation behind decreasing prejudice
What is an appropriate scale to measure internal and external factors in regard to prejudice?
Three studies Is the scale accurate?
Find a way to determine whether people are internally or externally motivated
10 items to assess internal motivation
9 items to assess external motivation
This scale proved reliable
Tests IMS and EMS Does it measure what it needs to? Method Three samples
Mostly white females
Black students were excluded
From an introductory psychology class
Sample One: 135 students
Sample Two: 245 students
Sample Three: 1,363 students Scale Development Results Of the 19 items 4 were dropped (inaccurate forms of measurement)
Two strong factors
Two weak factors
Two factor solution works better Reliability and Correlations of Final Scales Refining of scales made short them shorter
For this experiment reliability was maintained in all three samples making it a reliable scale Method Sample One
300 Introductory Psychology students
Completed the packet in an hour
Three random orders of questionnaires
119 Introductory Psychology Students
Complete all three measures (30 min sessions)
Complete a standard measure of prejudice It's important to know how IMS and EMS are related to know how to measure prejudice
Compares IMS and EMS with measures of prejudice, social evaluation, and self-presentation Results IMS strongly related to low measures of prejudice
Relationships between EMS and traditional prejudice were small
Externally motivated people are more prejudice than internally motivated people
IMS and EMS show good convergent and discriminant validity Note
IMS=Internal motivation to respond without prejudice scale
EMS=External motivation to respond without prejudice scale
MCPR= Motivations to control prejudiced reactions scale
ATB= Attitude toward blacks scale
*p<.05 **p<.01 Correlations Between the IMS, EMS, ATB, and MCPR Note: N=247
IMS= Internal motivation to respond without prejudice scale
EMS= External motivation to respond without prejudice scale
**p<.01 Correlations Between the IMS and EMS and Other Measures Explore the predictive validity of measures
Higgins's Self-Discrepancy Theory
When people's actual characteristics are different from what they feel they should be
They were collecting data for the difference between should and would for the two groups Personal Standard Results The "Shoulda Woulda" Study Method Mixed gender and mixed IMS and EMS groups were randomly assigned for personal standard or campus standard
Were informed that some questionnaires involved reactions to Black people
Completed a discrepancy questionnaire
Should, would, and affect standard
Difference in should standards High IMS people are less prejudice compared to low IMS people
High EMS people are more prejudice than low EMS people
Shows most people are more prejudice than THEY believe they should be Campus Standard Results Campus should standards were nonprejudice
High IMS believe campus standard is lower prejudice than low IMS
More than half of participants knew they were more prejudice than campus standards permitted Second Approach Similar to first approach but used ATB instead of MRS Discussion Questions What are ways to work with externally motivated people?
Internally motivated? Discussion Questions What are some ways to switch attitudes from externally motivated to internally motivated? Study Two
Convergent and Discriminant Validity Study Three
Predictive Validity of the IMS and EMS Internal and External Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice Discussion Questions Name a situation where it would be better to be internally motivated? Externally?