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The Curriculum: Some Psuchological, Social and Historical Ba

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Janna Tubongbanua

on 28 November 2013

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Transcript of The Curriculum: Some Psuchological, Social and Historical Ba

The Curriculum:
Some Psychological,
Social and Historical Bases

Influences From Psychology
The works of the three contemporary psychologist,
Jerome Bruner
,
Jean Piaget
, and
Robert Gagne
, are contributing to the modern curriculum reform movement. We attempt to portray their contribution in this section.
HISTORICAL FOUNDATION OF THE CURRICULUM
FLANDERS'S 10 CATEGORIES
1. ACCEPTINCE OF FEELING
2. PRAISE OR ENCOURAGEMENT
3. ACCPETINF QUESTIONS
4. ASKING QUESTIONS
5. LECTURE
6. GIVING DIRECTIONS
7. CRITICIZING OR JUSTIFYING AUTHORITY
8. STUDENT TALK RESPONSE
9. STUDENT TALK INITIATION
10. SILENCE OR CONFUSION

Social Foundations of the Curriculum
Decisions of governmental agencies for example, affect the school and the home. And operations of these two instructions intent affect governmental practice. Indeed, socilogy of education is the scientific analysis of the social processes and social pattern involved in the educational system.
Foundations of the Curriculum in the Schools
To know the nature of a school, one must have some understanding of the foundations underlying the curriculum development
Teaching
and
Learning
Some people claim that when learning is occured, teaching has occured, and vice versa. We deny this, there can be learning where there has been no teaching, and good teaching can result in little or no learning at all. Without intent, there is no teaching. Thus is a basic thing in teaching. But learning can and does occur even when there is no teaching.
In the school, each child learns much more then he is taught as part of curriculum.Not all learning is the result of the planned experiences in the school. For practical purposes, no one has ever seen another learn, this is known as
"ice berg theory",
where we can see only the tip of te iceberg.
JEROME BRUNER
A harvard University Psychologis, Bruner reported his interpretation of human learning and derived curriculum principles in his often book.
He was one of the first proponents of constructivism a major theme in the theory of Bruner is their current or past knowledge .
learners are encouraged to discover facts and relationships for themelves
Discovery Learning
it refers to obtaining the knowledge for oneself. Teacher plans and arranges activities in such a way that students search, manipulate, explore and investigate.
In Elementary
Teachers might use guided discovery to help children learn animal groups. Example, mammals, birds, reptiles. Example of Curriculum, Science in which they will classify the categories of animals.
In High School
A chemistry teacher might used "mystery" liquids and have students discover the elements in each, Bruner using the experimental, process, students learn about the reactions of the content of their mysteries substance.
Example of Curriculum
Chemstry - 3rd year
Physical Science - 4th year
Jean Piaget
Piaget called his general theoretical framework "genetic epistemology" because he was interested in how knowledge develop in human organisms.
Piaget theory has been applied widely to teaching and curriculum design especially in the preschool and elementary curriculum.
Sensorimotor
Last from birth ti approximately age two and is centered on the infant trying to make sense of the world. During the sensorimotor stage, infant's knowledge of the world is limited to his her sensory perceptions and motor activities. Behaviors are imited to simple motor responses caused by sensory stimuli. Children utilize skills and abilities they were born with (such as looking, sucking, grsping, and listening) to learn more about environment.
Pre Operational Stage
Occurs roughly between the ages two and seven. During the preoperational stage, children also become increasingly adept at using symbols, as evidence by the increase in playing and pretending.
Concrete Operational Stage
The concrete operational stages begins around age seven and continues until approximately age eleven. During this time, children gain better understanding of mental operations. Children begin to think about abstract concepts.
Formal Operational Stage
The Formal operational stage begins at approximately age twelve to and lasts into adulthood. During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts. Skills much as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning also emerge during this stage.
Robert Gagne
Gagne advises that this capability to be stated in behavoiral terms at the outset.
one can the analyze the task into its pre-requisite capabilities, building pyramid of capabilities, toward the desired objective.
Education as a Social Activity
The contact with society in general, but moe importantly with his contacts with those whom he consider important affect the development of each individual child. When the child enters school, the teachers and classmates broaden the sphere of "Significant others". He emulates peers more as he grows.
EXAMPLE OF CURRICULUM IN HIGHSCHOOL
Special Program the Arts
The curriculum of the SPA is the general high school curriculum. The general education subject will be an integral part and will be broaden understanding of the arts. Values education shall be integrated in all Specialization subjects.
Music

The music program is designed for music students with interest in vocal or instrumental music.
Visual Arts

The visual arts program will help students discover what they can produce through their creativity with local arts such as painting, print making creative crafts and designing sculpture etc.
Theater Arts

There is a great deal of emphasis on group work skills and live performance on spoken text in a number of styles and genres in the theater Regions may also use their own theater art forms as materials.
Creative Writing

Students will be trained to explore and write their own ideas and experiences. They will study and work on all genres like poetry, fiction, nonfiction,etc. The study and use of local materials like their own folklore will be encouraged. The language of instruction will be bilingual.
Media Arts

The media arts program teaches students to use elements and tools of current and emerging technologies to create works and express feelings and ideas. Students will be trained to critique and create work through photography, video, audio, interactive media etc. The language of instruction will be English
Dance

Students will develop techniques, movement, vocabulary, and a deeper understanding of dance as a form of communication and expression. Dance offerings may include folk, ballet and jazz. Emphasis should be given on the native dances of the region. The language of instruction will be English
The philisopher George Santayana, once noted that we stand today on the shoulder of all the giants who perceded us. Indeed, the cumulative efforts of educators, philosophers, psychologist, and sociologist over many centuries make possible the numerous advantages we currently enjoyed.
EXAMPLE OF HISTORICAL CURRICULUM
K TO 12
ARALING PANLIPUNAN
MAKABAYAN
COLLEGE
SSC-101A
PHILIPPINE HISTORY
EDUC 104 THE TEACHING PROFESSION
MAPH103 PHILIPPINE FOLK DANCE
MAPH 107 INTERNATIONAL FOLK DANCE AND OTHER DANCE
MUSC 105 MUSIC LITERATURE
SSCIA 110 RIZAL COURSE
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