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Mental Health

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AnnMarie Espina

on 15 November 2016

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Transcript of Mental Health

Mental Health
Interventions
Jaz Kalogerakis, Mariela Lalut-Salvatore & AnnMarie Espina

Mental Health: A Public Health Issue
Physical
Social
Biological Status
Socioeconomic Status
Attitudes & Values
Cognitive Factors
Behaviour
Mental
Physical: Built
Physical: Natural
Social
Political
Economic
Define: Mental Health
WHO defines mental health as ‘a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and is able to make a contribution to his or her community’ [1].

Partaking in spiritual activities e.g. mindfulness meditation can [6] ..
Increase mental health [6]
Reduce risk of depression or depressive symptoms, especially in stressed populations [6]
Increase recovery from depression [6]
Assist with coping skills [6]
Reduce anxiety [6]
Be a powerful source of comfort [6]
Provide meaning and purpose in hard times [6]

450 million people suffer from mental disorders [1]

1 in 5 Australians experience mental disorder
Depression, anxiety, stress, mood disorders, substance use, psychiatric disorders [4][5][6][7]

Depression and anxiety can be influenced by..
Previous difficult emotional or traumatic events [4][8]
Illicit drug use [7]
Emotional and psychological well being [1]
Previous mental health issues [4]
Pressure at work or home [1]
Medical illness [3]
Spiritual
Mental
Holistic Health
Individual Determinants
Environmental Determinants
Anxiety sufferers are likely to feel overwhelmed, panic stricken and out of control, with hearts racing and sweaty palms [1][2].
Define: Anxiety
Depression is debilitating, it takes away a persons interest in life, ability to be happy and see beauty; feeling drained, unable to concentrate and hopelessness [1][2].
Define: Depression
Beliefs about depression can be impacted by age, gender, education and cultural background [22][23]
Many believe chemical imbalances in the brain or stressful situations are the cause of depression[19][22]
Different views about if or how mental illness should be treated [23][22]

Mental health literacy is increasing because of public health campaigns [22]
Increasing ability to detect signs and symptoms of depression
Beliefs &Knowledge
Patients with major depression turning to spiritual activity as the most beneficial in recovery [6]
Meditation
Spiritual activity helped cope with psychological pain or depression [6]

"90 percent of Americans turned to their spiritual beliefs to cope with the stress of September 11th"[6]



Spiritual
Individuals with depression are likely with withdrawal from family and social networks [8]
Harmful social circles include..
Substance abuse [7]
Taking on 'fake' identities to fit in [8]
Social capital or groups are important to mental well being and recovery e.g. school, friends, work or communities [8][22][26]
Reconnecting with social relationships [8]
Finding a social valued identity [8]
Social
Women working full time with dependent children are more likely to experience depression [24]
Unemployment can contribute to depression, while gaining employment can have positive effects [7]
Depression an anxiety in the work place can result in 7.2 days of work cutback and 5.7 days of work lost per month [9]
Or 5 weeks of productivity loss per worker [9]
Low income can impact stress and depression [25]
Employment & Income
Literacy levels are connected to depression and anxiety [11]
2.7 times at higher risk of depression with low literacy [11]
Self efficacy and education impact depression [11]
Positive early education can increase mental resilience and lead to better social outcomes [26]
Children entering school before they are ready have higher risk of poor mental health [26]
Education
Depression and anxiety can lead to..
Migraines, headaches, sickness, fatigue, sleeping problems, change in appetite, irritability, racing heart and/or tightening in the chest and osteoperosis[1][9][10][11][12]
Geriatric depression tends to be associated with..
Vegetative syndrome [11]
Increased abdominal fat [11]
Decreased bone density [11]
Risk of developing Type II diabetes [11]
"Nothing seemed fun anymore. I was tired all the time, and I wasn't sleeping well at night. But I knew I had to keep going because I've got kids and a job. It just felt so impossible, like nothing was going to change or get better." [3]
Depression and anxiety have been associated with..
Smoking [3][9]
Substance abuse [27]
High risk sexual behavior [27]
Tired and sick [14]
Decreased productivity [3][9]
Avoiding enjoyable activities[3]
Overeating[3][9]
Suicide or suicide attempts [14][27]
1 million suicides from depression a year [10][11]

Physical activity decreases incidence of depression and anxiety, additionally it is beneficial to..
Wellness, fitness, social relationships and quality of life [1][11][14][28]
Physical
People with depression and anxiety reported..
Repeatedly thinking about negative events or problems [9]
Difficulty controlling these thoughts [9]
Uncontrollable worrisome thoughts, repetitive negative thinking, pessimistic thinking,obsessive thoughts [3][9]
Mindfulness and meditation can be useful behaviour to combat repetitive negative thoughts and depression [9]
Age and gender impact attitudes
In Australia mental health problems are viewed as a illness not weakness [19]
However..
Older populations view depression as a weakness not an illness
They assume their generation are very unlikely to suffer from depression [20]
Women are more empathetic and open minded towards people with depression or anxiety [21]
Those who value themselves are more likely to have better mental health[14]
Ethnic minority groups affected by depression [16]
Certain gene combinations can predispose to depression and anxiety [1][17][18]
Additionally, environmental factors can be a trigger for depression [3]
Ethnicity & Genetics
Gender
Depression is more common in women compared to men [3][10]
Biological, life cycle, hormonal, and psychosocial factors [3]
Changing hormones can result in..
Postpartum/postnatal depression
Menopause related depression[3]
Women face many additional stresses at work and at home
Unclear why some get depression and others do not [3]
Men experience depression differently
More likely to turn to substance abuse or reckless behaviour [3]
More women attempt suicide, but more men die by suicide [3]
"White males age 85 and older actually have the highest suicide rate in the US"[3]

Anxiety and depression was highest for people aged 35–44 [5]
Young adults are also a high risk age group [13][14]
Depression in adolescence can lead to substance misuse [7]
Increasing episodes through adulthood [3]
"By 15 girls are twice as likely as boys to have had a major depressive episode" [3]
Anxiety, eating disorders, or substance abuse can co-exist with depression [3]
Depression and anxiety in university students prevalence is between 7%-19% [15]
Depression is commonly seen in aging populations [3]
Medical conditions can cause depressive symptoms [3]


Age

Social isolation and poor social experiences [8]
Disruption of relationships and social networks [8]


Social interactions are important in recovery to reclaim power and achieve a sense of belonging [8]
Depression and anxiety may impact interactions with social environments [8]
Green space is alleviating stress associated with higher density living [29]
Sprawling suburbs are not healthy, it is argued that they restrict opportunities for physical activity and ready access to healthy food, as well as undermine social capital [30]
Urban populations reliance on private car travel and individualistic residential urban form result in: reduced interaction and feelings of disconnectedness and isolation [30]
Suburbs designed for cycling and walking promote social interaction [30]

Environment devoid of nature has a negative effect on health and quality of life [31]
Green space can foster social contact [32]
Outdoor learning activities (gardening, habitat conservation, caring for animals) is beneficial for mental health and wellbeing of adults and children [29]
Surburban living can lead to reduced social capital
unwanted isolation, deterioration in collective identity and weakened social support amongst neighbours [30]

Natural Environment
Regularly and reliably having access the land to practice cultural and livelihood activities [33][41]
Shifts in weather, temperature, wildlife and vegetation patterns, water & food quality and quantity [34]
Disruptions in land-based activities and a loss of place-based solace and cultural identity [35]
Increased family stress, enhanced the possibility of increased drug and alcohol usage, amplified previous traumas [35]
‘Drought stress’- high suicide rate amongst farmers [36]

Climate Change
Social capital is broadly defined as "social networks, community cohesion, and participation" [22]
Poverty and low levels of education leads to mental health problems [1]
Stressful work conditions (exclusion and discrimination) [1]
A sense of community and belonging within the places where people live, work and travel is an influential determinant of mental health [38]
Incidental interaction with people enhances possibilities for human connection, decreases feelings of loneliness and isolation [39]


Without basic civil, political, cultural and socioeconomic rights it is impossible to maintain a high level of mental health [1]
Policies must ensure that Government funding is available for open land purchase as well as design and upkeep along with improving existing provisions [30]
Happiness and well-being should be at the top of the political agenda [37]
‘www.psyfit.nl’ a government website designed to improve your own mental health from home

Man Therapy
References
Holistic
Mental: increase sense of worth and belonging
Physical: decrease risk of geriatric physical outcomes from depression
Social: increase social capital and interaction with others to create reliable relationships
Spiritual: giving
Ecological
Increasing social capital in efforts to decrease risk of depression and anxiety
Salutogenic
Partaking in the activities will unknowingly increase all aspects of health

New Public Health: Social Capital and Health
Affluenza
The bloated sluggish and unfulfilled feeling that results from efforts to 'keep up with the Joneses' [40]
Can effect individuals, groups and whole populations [40]
Impacts on Mental Health
High rates of psychological problems [40]
Guilt, anxiety, depression [40]
New Public Health:Participation as a means

Campus Co-op
Holistic
Mental: unplanned social interaction
Physical: being outside and active, increasing vitamin D and nutrition
Social: meeting new people and interacting with community (including community professionals e.g. farmers)
Spiritual: connecting with nature, giving back to the community and a chance to unwind
Ecological
Environment built: new infrastructure and attraction
Environment physical: allowing community to interact with nature
Cultural: grow international produce and alternative medical professionals
Political: USC introduction of new policies and involving local council
Salutogenic
Partaking in the activities will unknowingly increase all aspects of health
Holistic
Mental: skills to cope with postnatal depression
Physical: strategies for looking after themselves
Social: support network with awareness
Spiritual: 'time out' opportunities
Ecological
Political: policy for new health professionals
Salutogenic
Creating healthy mothers will create healthy generations
3 Way Intervention
New Public Health: The Role of Professionals
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