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Benefits of Animal Research with animals
Transcript of Benefits of Animal Research with animals
Roxanna Angulo, Bianca Bonetti, Laura Deuchi
April Espinoza, Natalie Osongco, Karen Siegel,
Stanley Roxas Where it all began The history of animal testing goes back to the writings of the Greeks in the 3rd and 4th centuries BCE.
Aristotle and Erasistratus were among the first to perform experiments on living animals.
Avenzoar, an Arabic physician in 12th-century Moorish Spain, introduced animal testing as an experimental method of testing surgical procedures before applying them to human patients Where it all began...continued In the 1880s,Louis Pasteur began examining the guts from chickens that were infected with cholera and isolated the causative microbe in a culture. He discovered that the microorganisms lost their ability to infect healthy specimens after time had passed.
Pasteur found that the recurrence of disease was rare in human specimens which had survived attacks of certain diseases. This was the beginning of immunization. Where it all began... continued Where it all began... concluded Throughout the 20th century, research that used live animals has led to many other medical advances and treatments for human diseases.
Presently, animal experimentation continues to be used in research that aims to solve medical problems in which there is no useful in vitro model system available. Medical animal testing Animal testing for medical purposes consists of medical professionals testing treatments for diseases on animals with similar systems to humans.
Only about 6% of animal testing is for medical purposes. The other 94% is for household or cosmetic products. The age old question: The purpose of testing on animals Animals are considered to be expendable and can be bred purely for research purposes.
Procedures and treatments are first tested on animals before they can be tested on humans. The most common testing animals Preferred animal test subjects are rabbits, mice, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters and monkeys.
Other animals used for testing include stray dogs and cats.
Rats and mice can be bred purely for testing, however larger animals like dogs and cats can be found from the pound. Tests performed on animals Whole body tests,
Short-term toxicity tests,
Skin penetration tests,
Skin/eye irritancy tests, Photosensitisation tests,
Teratogencity tests and
Finished product tests.
These tests can include: surgery,
social isolation, deliberate induced stress and food/water deprivation. The animals after experimentation Some animals are euthanized because of the genetic manipulation that occurs.
Other animals are allowed placed in "retirement communities" where they live out their life in "relative" comfort.
On some occasions, animals can be adopted by families. Cancer
1. Breast Cancer: Development of Herceptin and Tamoxifen
2. Childhood Leukemia: Uses animal models to develop new types of less invasive drugs
3. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Development of Gleevec
4. Lung Cancer: Used mouse models to find and prevent cancer HIV/AIDS *No cure has been found, but newer research with animal models has allowed medicine to be developed that have fewer side effects
*Research has also found vaccine candidates that may one day make the HIV infection preventable
*1995- Protease Inhibitors were approved & new advancements were made in medicine & combination therapies
*AIDS death rate has fallen 70% in the US
*Research with animal models were used to better understand the mother-to-infant HIV transmission Parkinson's Disease Heart disease/stroke What is it: Often result from a narrowing of the blood vessels that can severely reduce or even stop blood flow to important organs like the heart or brain.
1. Statins: Pill to control heart chloresterol
2. "Clot-busting agents": rt-Pa
3. Nutrition: Much of what doctors know about the role foods play in reducing risk of heart disease was found through animal studies The Cardiac Pacemaker Research done by John Hopps in 1941.
The pacemaker was used to start a dogs heart in 1949.
In 1950, through continual research on dogs, the first cardiac pacemaker was created. The Heart-Lung Machine Research began in 1931 by John Heysham Gibbon.
In 1935 he was able to successfully keep a cat alive for 26 minutes.
In the 1950’s, he continued his research in dogs.
He was able to keep 12 dogs alive for more than half an hour.
In 1953, Cecelia Bavolek was the first person to undergo surgery with the machine. The Macular Relocation Surgery Research began in the 1960’s by a team in Liverpool.
This surgery could be practiced on human cadavers, but there was no way of knowing if vision was restored.
This surgery was then practiced on the eyes of monkeys, cats, and rabbits.
In 1998, macular relocation surgery was introduced and available for those suffering from macular degeneration. Diabetes Birth Defects Cystic Fibrosis *The abnormal gene that causes Cystic Fibrosis was discovered in 1989
*1992- mice were bred defects in their Cystic Fibrosis gene
*2004- Further strain was added to the mice
*New drugs that are aimed to prevent or treat infections are currently being tested on animal models, primarily mice but most recently pigs; the airways of pigs closely resemble those of humans.
*Advances in medical treatment has improved the quality of life and life expectancy of children diagnosed with the inherited disease of Cystic Fibrosis
*More progress in the past 5 years than in the previous 50 years
*Scientist believe that they are on the threshold of major discoveries which will lead to new treatments
*The search for a cure for paralysis could also yield advances in the treatment of other neurological disorders: Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease,
Aftereffects of stroke Those who are opposed to
Medical Research with Animals might say… Charles Darwin's theory of evolution in 1859 became the scientific foundation for using animal experiments to learn more about humans. In the late nineteenth century,Ivan Pavlov's experiments in the development of "conditioned" responses in dogs (salivation) helped to advance an increasingly respected school of psychology known as behaviorism.
The contemporary human course of therapy know as behavior modifications is fashioned from parallels drawn on these early experiments in operant conditioning. Epilepsy What it is: a contagious disease that causes inflammation of the liver as well as liver failure
How many it affects: 3.2 million Americans Hepatitis C *It causes suffering and/or tortures the animal
* Death can occur
*Animal testing is not ethical
* Accuracy is not consistent
* Price of animal testing is high Spinal cord Injuries What it is: the inability for the body to convert glucose into energy How many it affects: 25.8 million Americans; animals What it is:
physical or biomedical abnormalities present at birth either genetically or environmentally.
How many it affects:
8 million children worldwide, many dying before age 5. What it is: neurological condition in which people experience sudden recurrent episodes of sensory disturbance, loss of consciousness, and convulsions.
How many it affects: 2.7 million Americans.80% of people with epilepsy are able to live a normal life Penicillin
• Advances have eliminated or reduced disease and infections that once were thought as fatal
• Millions of people’s lives saved and or prolonged
• Assisted in the Allies victory in World War II Staples in Medicine Possible Only
Animal Research Penicillin “World’s First Antibiotic”
- Alexander Fleming
-Howard Florey and Ernst Chain
- Nobel Prize in Medicine 1945
- Rheumatic Fever
- Gangrene • Animal Used
8 Mice injected with a deadly bacteria
4 Mice given purified penicillin
4 Control mice died
3 of the experimental group survived and no longer had the bacteria Penicillin (Continued) The Wonder Drug A protein hormone that allows our bodies to use sugar where our cells need them
• A deficiency in the production of insulin
Diabetes was a fatal and feared disease in the late 1800s
• Fredrick Banting, Charles Best, John Mcleod Insulin • Animals Used
Pancreas was removed from dog
• Dog showed signs of diabetes
• High blood sugar
• Became weak
Injected with extracted insulin from another dog
Symptoms were eliminated with regular injections
Cattle pancreases were used in extended tests Insulin (continued) Modern Application • Antibiotic discovered in 1943 by Albert Schatz
• Cure for Tuberculosis
-Bacterial infection often affecting the lungs
- “White Plague”
- Leading cause of death in the 1900’s
-Considered a death sentence and as feared as cancer is today Streptomycin • Animals Used
-Isolated and extracted from Chicken soil
- Injected into Guinea Pigs infected with TB
- Inhibited TB without harm to Guinea Pig Streptomycin (concluded) What is it:Degenerative disorder of the central nervous system, where there is death of dopamine cells that leads to loss of motor movement
1. Stem Cells: Second cell line is being developed for testing in lab animals
2. Neurotrophic Factors: Animal studies on proteins led to production of dopamine