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NEOPLASIA

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Belén de la Morena

on 12 October 2012

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Transcript of NEOPLASIA

Isabel Fabregat
Teresa Cebolla
Belén de la Morena NEOPLASIA ONCOLOGY Causes of malignant transformation GROWING OF TUMOR - How similar neoplastic cells and the normal equivalent ones are
- No differentiation ANAPLASIA DEFINITIONS NEOPLASIA:it refers to the process of descontrolated proliferation of cells in a tissue or an organ which results in the formation of a NEOPLASM cannot form solid masses causing intraepithelial cervical neoplasia and leukemia those that form solid mases, called as tumors malignant benign adenoma papilloma polyp... carcinoma sarcoma comparation of tumors ONCOGENESIS/CARCINOGENESIS due to a MUTATION COMPONENTS OF TUMORS parenchyma:
proliferating cells
biological behaviour
supporting stroma
connective tissue
blood vessels
support Accumulation of genetic mutations carcinogenic factors genetic predisposition carcinogenic agents others(age and diet) physical -> radiations chemical->tobbaco biological:
virus, bacteria
fungy PROTO-ONCOGEN FORMATION OF CANCER:
Progression of changes on cellular and genetic level.



Uncontrolled cell division


MALIGNANT TUMOR proto-oncogen oncogen mutation Family of normal genes that encode proteins
Causing uncontrolled proliferation and cell death ONCOGEN Means mass or tumor.
Encode the production of ALTERED proteins involved in grow control. ACTIVATION OF ONCOGENES 1.Point mutation
2. Gene amplification
3. Chromosomal translocation
4. Deletion of genes ANTIONCOGEN Cancer suppresor gene (CSG) p53 - Called the " genome´s guardian"
- It detects DNA alterations
- Avoid cancer formation

Its absence:
- damage
- becomes defective
50% of cancer caused by its absence 1. Transformation
2. Latent period
3. Local invasion
4. Metastasis DIFERENTIATION AND ANAPLASIA NEOPLASTIC TRANSFORMATIONS Morphological changes:
- Pleomorphism
- Abnormal nuclear morphology
- Mitosis
- Loss of polarity
- Giant tumor cells SPEED OF TUMOR PROGRESSION - Duplication of tumor cells.

- Fraction of cells that form the replicant mass.

- Speed lost in the growth. METASTASIS - Exclusive for malign tumors
- Type of dissemination: Direct
- Cavities or corporal surfaces
- Carcinoma Indirect
- Lymphatic or hemotogen
- Carcinoma or sarcoma TUMOR METABOLISM - Release of E through anaerobic glycolysis
- Protein synthesis capacity different from normal equivalents
- Tumor cells have high rate of glycolysis TUMOR MARKERS - Substances showed in the tumor AND help to characterize it.

- Appear in the serum in higher [ ] than in normal conditions.

- Products of abnormal secretion of tumor or from normal
but excessive. 1. Embryonic and fetal antigens
2. Hormones TYPES OF MARKERS HOST BEHAVIOR different types of reactions against the tumor passive Supports Non-specific defense Immune Defense tumor cells have specific
antigens
(reactions against them) inespecific aggression enhanced



cytokines IL-1 and TNF provides the conditions needed for tumor TYPES OF MANIFESTATIONS LOCAL GENERAL AND DISTANT
2. Conflicts of space
3. Stenosis and obstruction of hollow organs
4. Ulceration of the tumor 1. Common general manifestations
2. Paraneoplastic syndrome
- Endocrinologic
- metabolic
- hematological
- cutaneous
- neuromuscular
- kidney
- vascular
- osteoarticular of the normal cell genetic material abnormal equilibrium between PROLIFERATION CELL DEATH only mutations in genes that play roles in CELL DIVISION APOPTOSIS DNA REPAIR uncontrolled PROLIFERATION TYPES OF CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY IN SPAIN Total cancer incidence projections for the Spanish population in 2015 are 222,069 people (136,961 men and 85,108 women). Colorectal is the most frequent cancer type, followed by lung cancer and breast cancer. There are over 100 different types of cancer, affecting various parts of the body. Each type of cancer is unique with its own causes, symptoms, and methods of treatment. 1. Increase of both volume and invasion and the destruction of normal tissues Its absence can develop cancer
Different types: Rb, p53, p16... Disrupt the signaling mechanism of cell growth becoming HYPERACTIVE Determined by: The word cancer comes from a Greek word which means CRAB.

Hippocrates used that word to describe tumors, because their branches seem crabs legs. Why cancer is called so? CURIOSITIES CARCINOGENIC SUBSTANCE A carcinogenic substance is known as every physical, chemical or biological agent that is able to cause CANCER to an organism is it really carcinogenic? CEE classification of carcinogenic substances
RISK LEVELS for a carcinogenic substance:
- carcinogenic elements R 45: it may cause cancer
- Mutagenic substance R 46: it may cause hereditable genetic alterations
- teratogen substances R 47: it may cause congenic malformations Does breast cancer affect men? Is associated with women, but also affects men, because they also have breast tissue. Only that the incidence of breast cancer in men is less than women, for every 100 cases of women there is a case of man. The causes are unknown. In countries such as EEUU, they forbid the use of Zero coke because of the presence of sodium cyclamate, which is a carcinogenic substance. Besides, other countries: Holland, France, Britain, Ireland, Norway… they all also avoid it. It is said that the only doubt of the presence of a carcinogenic substance the best reaction should be to forbid it 11 products taken away 1.- Solcare loción aftersun hidratante.
2.- Solcare loción aftersun luminosidad.
3.- Solcare gel aftersun aloe vera.
4.- Deliplus nutritiva corporal con aceite de oliva.
5.- Deliplus crema de manos nutritiva.
6.- Deliplus hidratante corporal con aloe vera.
7.- Deliplus hidratante corporal efecto luminosidad.
8.- Deliplus hidrantante corporal reafirmante.
9.- Deliplus hidratante antisequedad para pies.
10.- Deliplus nutritiva corporal con almendras.
11.- Deliplus hidratante corporal pieles atópicas. *because of the presence of two products that shouldn´t be together
- trietanolamina, (which acts with PH)
- bronopol,
they both can develope NITROSAMINE that is an inductor of many cancers
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