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April Revolution in South Korea 1960

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Elise Marie

on 13 November 2013

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Transcript of April Revolution in South Korea 1960

South Korea
The April Revolution of 1960
This period of civil unrest in South Korea culminating in the 1960 April Revolution is just the start to a longer period of political conflict throughout the country.
Historical Context
Political Influences
Exerted pressure on northern Korea, but also served as a link to political and cultural dissemination
The Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 and the creation of the Soviet Union sparked a growth of support for Socialism and Marxism in northern Korea
United States
The concept of American democracy influenced many young Korean students,
The Independence Club at Paekje School; founded by Syngman Rhee.
wished to attain political control over the nation as a means to establish dominion over the Eastern Sea region

Japanese Occupation
1910 to 1945

First decade: The Dark Period
Repression of Korean people and culture
Many Koreans converted to Christianity as religion was the only organized activity allowed under Japanese rule.
March 1st Movement and the Korean Declaration of Independence
Emergence of the Korean Youth Independence Party
Rise of Nationalism
Korean War and US Intervention
Post-Colonial Korea faced major issues
Industrial growth in North Korea
South still relied upon agriculture
Trustee-ship under Soviet Union and the US did not lend to a reunification effort
Economic stress led to the creation of many different political groups which each had their own idea of how to correct the situation
The 1960 Election
Rhee's fourth term
Changes in policy
Opponent dies before election
Vice Presidential Election
Chang Myon - strong favorite among the public
Lee Ki Poong - favored by Rhee
Fixed Results
Pre-marked ballots
To expose government corruption
1000 people gather in front of Democratic Party headquarters
Goal of police force was not to disperse the crowd
Students Take Action
April 18 - Korea University students take part in a non-violent protest demanding new elections
"Anti-Communist league" gangs
Progression of the Protest
April 26
500,000 march with Rhee statue
30 people dead
Syngman Rhee steps down
April 27
Lee Ki Poong and family commit suicide
Chief of security steps down and takes responsibility for events of Masan
Syngman Rhee
Economic Struggle
Second Half: Cultural Rule
Japanese rule now allowed the Korean people to practice their culture
Korea was still not free
Treaty of Kwangha in 1817
Korea: a small nation surrounded by more powerful political entities
strongly anti-communist and
Kim Ju-yul
Disappeared during Masan riot March 15
Body found April 11
Injuries consistent with being shot by a tear gas grenade
Korean Independence

Japan surrendered to the United States in 1945 after the two atomic bombings
Korea was split along the 38th parallel
North Korea - Marxist and Communist ideologiess
South Korea - Capitalist
Three Kingdoms Period of Korea
Prior to Japanese occupation
Korea split along 38th parallel
Post Japanese occupation
April 19 - tens of thousands of students gather in front of Presidential mansion demanding Rhee's resignation
140 killed and thousands injured
Martial Law
Sparked a revolution
1960 Election
Students and civilians working together
The fall of a government
Elections were held in each of the two halves of Korea to determine how the country would proceed...
North Korea
- established the Korean People's Army
- drafted constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
South Korea
- created constitutional Republic of Korea
- led by President Syngman Rhee
Elections resulted in even higher tension between North and South...
The South Korean Worker's Party in opposition to the election of Rhee joined with their counterpart in the North.
Rhee was forced to resort to heavy violence against the Worker's Party to keep his power
On June 23rd 1950, Kim Il sung announces
the start of the
war of liberation

Large casualties on both sides after a year of intense fighting
Truce negotiations facilitated by the United States created an armistice between North and South: Still not officially ended as there is no peace treaty
Creation of the DMZ along the 38th parallel cements the separation of Korea
Highly educated
founded the Youth Independence Party at Paekje School
recruited the United States in the Korean War to fight with the South
growing unpopularity with the people due to economic hardship and post-war South Korea
The corrupt election of Rhee for a 4th term in 1960 sparked the youth of Korea to revolt
The Voice of the people
- 2012 Park Guen Hye elected first female Koean president
- economy is 13th - 14th largest economy in the world
South Korea now
-1988 Roh Tae Woo wins first real presidential election
- This time society has diversified, stronger class force and democratic orientation
- US pressure for a peaceful democratic transition to Roh Tae Woo
A bit closer to democracy
- military coup May 1961
- Park Chung Hee in power until assasinated by Cheif of Korean Central Intelligence Agency
- Chun Doo Hwan (New Military Group) steps into power
-enforces "total security system"
Military Reign
Presented by Elise Antel, Alyssia King and Alaina Napolitano
Full transcript