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Cassidy Barnsley

on 4 October 2016

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Transcript of Feminism

Violence Against Women
What is violence against women?
History of Feminism
Waves of Feminism
The Backlash Against Feminsm
1. a strong or violent reaction, as to some social or political change; 2. borne upon resenting success; one party makes advances, while another feels left out, threatened, growing cynical
Unwed Mothers
A single mother is a woman not living with a partner or spouse, whose day to day responsibility is to care for her children. She is the primary caregiver. The main reasons why there are unwed mothers are divorce, widowed, choice, unplanned pregnancy, adoption. 4-10 children are born to unwed mothers. 1-4 chldren under the age of 18 dont have a father figure.
Feminism Within the Catholic Church
Before 1985:
feminist movement evident through demands of increased ordination and female alter servers
Pay Equity
What is it?
Pay Equity is "equal pay for work of equal value".

The gender wage gap is the difference in earnings between men and women. While progress has been made over the years on closing the gender wage gap, on average, women still do not earn as much as men.

Many factors contribute to the gender wage gap including differences between men and women in education levels, work experience, hours worked, and family and home responsibilities. Pay equity recognizes that historically, women and men have tended to do different kinds of work. Work that has traditionally been performed by women has generally been undervalued and hence underpaid. The aim of The Pay Equity Act is to close the part of the wage gap that is due to systemic gender discrimination in employer pay practices.

Pay Equity Act requires employers to identify and correct the gender discrimination that may be present in their pay practices and to adjust the wages of employees in female job classes so that they are at least equal to the wages of employees in male job classes found to be comparable in value based on skill, effort, responsibility and working conditions. According to the Act, all employees–both men and women–in undervalued female job classes would receive pay equity wage adjustments.

The Wage Gap Over Time

Year Women's Men's Dollar Percent
Earnings Earnings Difference

2013 $39,157 $50,033 $10,876 78.3%

2009 $36,278 $47,127 $10,849 77.0%

2004* $32,285 $42,160 $9,875 76.6%

2000 $27,355 $37,339 $9,984 73.3%

1990 $25,451 $35,538 $10,087 71.6%

1960 $16,144 $26,608 $10,464 60.7%

Ontario's Wage Gap

According to the most recent Statistics Canada data, the average annual earnings of all women in Ontario as compared to men is 68.5% – or a 31.5% gap.
If you measure the gap in Ontario using only full-time, full-year average annual earnings the gap is 26%.
The pay gap increases substantially when intersecting with other forms of discrimination such as those experienced by women of colour, women with disabilities and Aboriginal women.

The 31.5% pay gap speaks to:
The underemployment of women → women make up the majority of part-time workers
Lack of access to affordable childcare for women who want full-time work
The segregation of women into lower paid job classes.
Women’s dominance in minimum wage jobs.
Based on the increased gender pay gap of 31.5%, Ontario women will have to work an additional 14 years, in order to earn the same pay which a man earns by age 65, at the current rate of progress.
Discrimination in pay is not limited to one career or demographic. Pay discrimination affects women of all ages, races, and education levels – regardless of their family decisions.
Wage Gap Narrowing
The female-to-male earnings ratio—based on the annual earnings of full-year, full-time workers—has held steady at 0.72 since the early 1990s.

On an hourly wage basis, the gap in pay between full-time women and men closed by more than 5 percentage points from the early 1990s to the late 2000s.

The educational attainment of women has been rising in recent decades and now surpasses that of men. For example, the proportion of women age 25 to 54 in the labour force that held a university degree rose from 15.7% in 1990 to 29.3% in 2008.

On average, women's real wages increased by 11.6% between 1988 and 2008. While increases occurred across all age and wage groups, the most dramatic improvement was among women age 45 to 49 (17.8%) and those at the higher end of the wage distribution (16.0%).
Factors Contributing to the Narrowing of
Gender Wage Gap
The first major finding—that the growth in women's relative wages outpaced that of men—suggests that the changing composition of the labour force and changes in how the labour market compensates workers played a role in narrowing the gender wage gap.

The second major finding—that men and women entering today's labour market are more alike in terms of characteristics and wages than they were in the past. this suggests that part of the decline in the gender wage gap may be due to a cohort-replacement effect. As the younger cohorts 'replace' older cohorts, the overall wage gap declines simply because the gap is smaller for the new cohorts than for those who preceded them.

The third major finding— suggests that part of the decrease in the gender wage gap is related to the fact men and women's wages did not diverge as they aged to the same extent as in the past.
Post 1985:
discussion papers circulated amongst women within Catholic Church, initiating questions regarding female roles within the Church, resulting in general division
Divisions of Feminism
Secular Feminism:
concerned with international treatment of women
Spiritual (Religious or Christian) Feminism:
began in early 1970s, initiated by feminist efforts towards equality; concerned with religious practice regarding treatment of women within Church
poses concern to Christianity, as they reject God, attempting to create a new Church in their own image and likeness
Spiritual Feminism
began in nineteenth century, when liberalism viewed paradise (ultimate goal of evolution) as located on earth, as to in heaven
concept of spiritual equality is exemplified through primary demand for institutional revisions
Church teaches Revelation occurred once, and Christianity is not process of evolution or discovering new truths
thus, religious feminists infuriated by declined ordination, dubbing Church as "patriarchal"
claim women are oppressed by Church, and liberation of patriarchy must be achieved to enable social reconstruction within the Church; such liberation includes attainment of powerful positions and total freedom concerning moral matters
Rejecting the Word of God
Implies Bible is collection of myths, and therefore must be "demythologized" (rewritten in feminist perspective)
"myth", understood to be fictitious, thus the Bible cannot contain myth as that suggests sacred writers were not necessarily always inspired by God, but used own imagination to contribute to such truths
Feminists labeled aspects of the Church they were unwilling to accept as myths, redefining the term as an interpretation of an expressible truth, not wishing to seem as if attacking truth behind the
Word of God
As one's interpretation is as good as the next, Feminist
becomes justified, viewed as equivalent to the
Word of God
; known as
Herstory illustrates the message that dominant ideology and social order must be discredited in order for sub-cultural groups supporting alternative positions to survive. Further, women had to be angered into leaving the Church, to form communities of "liberation from patriarchy". Herstory utilizes the manipulative technique of conscious raising to recount women's personal experiences of perceived oppression, to weaken the dominant Church, and strengthen the newly created WomanChurch.
Witches and Oppression
Feminists combine current experiences of women, with past histories to demonstrate women's consistent oppression
Claim past "witches" suffered patriarchal suppression due to being understood as powerful women, not because they spread evil
Any philosophy deliberately arousing animosity/hatred towards God and his Church possesses potential to become tool of the devil (respectively)
Herstory underlies feminist theology, concerned only with
of the world, as to the soul and a world beyond earth; therefore new religion of spiritual feminism is anti-Catholic
Some devotees of religious feminism, claiming to be Catholic, struggle to make the break between the two; often hoping the Church will potentially change, but continually grow to resent non-inclusive female language and male celebrated masses, finding it necessary to leave the Church, or remain in the Church for another reason;
the hidden agenda
The Hidden Agenda
This hidden agenda of feminists, lies within devotees remaining in the Church, intending to change it to no longer be sexist. In order to initiate and engage in conscious raising worship, feminist communities had to be set up. These women regularly attend institutional churches, ensuing transformed liturgies, reflection, and social action be developed and brought to bear on the Church. Thus, the Church becomes a missionary field, with the aim of redeeming the Church from patriarchy.

WomanChurch's and feminists alike celebrate:
Sacrament of Penance

(not the transformation of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ, but the transformation of community into the body of a new humanity, infused with the blood of new life,
through sharing bread and wine)
This is the new religion in which they wish the convert the Catholic Church.
Eve's "Sin"
Following Gnostic thought, believe in either female Creator, or male-female God, considering themselves divine
As one who is divine cannot sin, only necessary salvation is liberation from sexism; achievable by themselves
Following such reasoning, no Original Sin, implying Eve displayed wisdom, as to disobedience and pride, claiming she was simply a "feminist"
Christ came only to provide superior knowledge, and one is only considered his equal after attaining his level of enlightenment, at which point one must no longer accept authority of institutional church
Feminists openly quote their Gospels as Christian Revelation
Religious feminists have adopted rituals of goddess-worshipping, female-centered religions, providing support of contemporary female-centered religious communities
Religious Feminism vs. The Catholic Church
The Catholic Church claims that at some level women are consciously aware sex can lead to pregnancy, thus abortion and contraception are generally not accepted. The widespread acceptance of contraceptive usage has led to misunderstandings regarding the nature of a sexual act. Woman may occasionally hear messages emphasizing the life-giving potential of sex, yet are overwhelmed with thousands of messages portraying it as trivial. In Western society, it is not an issue of being aware of contraceptive methods, as only 8% of women receiving an abortion have never used contraceptives before.
Pro-choice feminism respects women only once they have reached a certain age (usually 36 weeks), while the Catholic Church respects all women, regardless of how small or voiceless
Religious feminism may withhold information from women (i.e. tragedies of abortion), while the Catholic Church respects women enough to tell them the full truth regarding human life and sexuality, never discouraging obtaining information about ones body, trusting them with the truth, whether it is convenient or not
The United Nations Defines
violence against women
as: "Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life."
Intimate Partner Violence:
behaviour by any intimate partner or ex-partner causing physical, sexual, or psychological harm, including physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, or controlling behaviour

Sexual Violence:
any sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, or any other act directed against ones sexuality using coercion, by any person, regardless of the relationship to the victim, including rape
Types of Violence
1. Physical Abuse:
punching, choking, use of hands or objects as weapon, threat with (deadly) weapon, murder, etc.
2. Sexual Abuse:
use of threats, intimidation, or physical force into unwanted sexual acts
3. Emotional (Verbal) Abuse:
threats to kill or commit suicide, making humiliating or degrading comments regarding body or behaviour, coercion of degrading behaviour, peer and family isolation, confinement, destroying possessions, and other demeaning actions restricting freedom and/or independence
4. Financial Abuse:
stealing or controlling of money or valuables; forcing or denying the right to work
5. Spiritual Abuse:
use of religious or spiritual beliefs to manipulate, dominate, or control
6. Criminal Harassment/Stalking:
following or watching in a persistent, malicious, and unwanted manner; invasion of privacy threatening personal safety
Is violence against women still a serious problem today?
Since age 16, half of Canadian women have experienced at least one episode of physical or sexual violence
67% of all Canadians personally know at least one women who has been physically or sexually assaulted
In Canada, every six days a women is killed by her intimate partner
On any given day in Canada, 3300 women (including their 3000 children) seek emergency shelter due to domestic violence, while 200 of these women and their children are denied access due to over-occupation
In Canada, there are 40 000 annual arrests regarding domestic violence (12% of all national crime); with only a limited number of incidents being reported, the actual number is much higher
Only 10% of all sexual assaults are reported to the police, as women are often questioned or blamed for such assaults, often subjected to unresponsive treatment due to lack of investigation, therefore evidence; as only a few incidents are reported, fewer result in conviction with only 1500 sexual assault offenders being convicted every year
Collectively, Canadians annually spend $7.4 billion towards handling impacts of spousal abuse including immediate costs (i.e. emergency room visits), future costs (i.e. income loss), tangible costs (i.e. funerals), and intangible costs (i.e. pain and suffering)
In 2011, on a provincial level, Saskatchewan and Manitoba had rates of violence against females double the national rate, while Ontario and Quebec had the lowest rates; the territories consistently record highest rates of reported violence against women, while Nunavut holds a crime rate against women 13 times higher than the national rate of Canada
In 2010, 582 reported cases of missing/murdered Canadian Aboriginal women; if proportionately applied to the rest of the nation's female population, there would be over 18 000 missing Canadian women
1 in 10 Canadian women admit to being stalked to the point in which they feared for their life
Risk Factors
Intimate Partner AND Sexual Violence:
lower education levels (perpetrator and victim)
childhood maltreatment (both)
witnessing family violence (both)
harmful alcohol misuse (both)
anti-social personality disorder (perpetrator)
multiple partners or suspected infidelity of partner (perpetrator)
attitudes accepting violence and gender inequality (both)
Intimate Partner Violence:
past history of violence
marital discord or dissatisfaction
communication difficulties between partners
Sexual Violence:
beliefs in family honour and sexual purity
ideologies of male entitlement
weak legal assistance regarding sexual violence
Some factors associated with intimate partner and sexual violence are associated with being a perpetrator of violence, while others are associated with being victimized by such violence.
At Risk: Men or Women?
According to police, in Canada men and women are equally at risk of violent victimization. However, men are much more likely to be assaulted by a stranger or someone outside of their family, while women are more likely to be assaulted by someone they know. Some "self-reported" research claims women are almost as likely to use violence against their partner compared to men as men are often too ashamed to admit to being victimized by female violence. In fact, the opposite is true. Men tend to under-estimate their own violence while over-estimating the violence of their intimate partner. On the other hand, women tend to over-estimate their own violence, and under-estimate the violence of their intimate partner. Self-reported research fails to illustrate the fact that men are more likely to initiate violence, while females are more likely to use violence as a form of self-defense.
83% of all reported domestic assaults are against women
Within spousal violence, women are three times as likely to experience serious violence, more likely to be injured, more likely to request a restraining order, and are generally more likely to fear for their lives, compared to men
Over the past 30 years in Canada, women are three-four times more likely to be killed by a spouse than men
80% of victims of dating violence are girls
82% of all child sexual assault victim are female
Girls are four times as likely to be sexually assaulted by a family member, than boys
Minorities at Risk
Violence against women occurs throughout all cultures and religions, in all ethnic and racial communities, at every age, and at every financial level.
Aboriginal Women:
8 times as likely to be killed by an intimate partner than non-Aboriginal women
3.5 times more likely to be victimized by violence than non-Aboriginal women
Young Women:

66% of all female sexual assault victims are under the age of 24, with 11% under the age of 11
Rates of violent crimes against women aged 15-24 higher than rates of women aged 25-34, while nearly double rates of women aged 35-44
Immigrant Women:
May be more vulnerable to violence due to economic dependence, language barriers, or lack of knowledge regarding community services
Less likely to report sexual violence in fear of further victimization/deportation
One in five immigrant women claim to experience racism within health care system
Disabled Women:
60% of women with a disability experience violence
Along with typical "female violence" additionally receive other forms of violence related to disability (i.e. increased difficulty leaving abuser, higher rates of emotional abuse, prevention from necessary assistive devices, etc.)
Why do women remain in abusive relationships?
Domestic abuse is a gradual process in which the frequency and seriousness of assaults slowly escalade thoughout time. Abusers often express deep regret, promising change, resulting in it sometimes taking years before women are able to admit that the abuse will not stop. Meanwhile, these females experience long term abuse destroying their self-confidence, preventing them from believing or developing the courage to believe they deserve better. Therefore, women often remain in abusive relationships due to a few reasons:
1. Physical/Death Threats
Women and their children are often physically threatened by an abuser, in which threats are taken seriously as the most dangerous time for an abused women is when attempting to leave ones abuser.
25% of all women murdered by a spouse had left the relationship
Almost 60% of all dating violence occurred after the women had broken off the relationship
2. Financial Dependency
In Canada, over 1.22 million women, along with their children live in poverty
Women who leave their partner, attempting to raise child(ren) themselves, are five times as likely to become poor than women who remain with their partner
3. Firm Beliefs Regarding Family Unity (Religious/Cultural)
Health Consequences
Violence against women, particularly intimate partner and sexual violence, is a major violation of human rights, posing serious short and long-term physical, sexual, mental, and reproductive health problems for survivors.
Potential fatality
Potential injury, as 42% of women experiencing intimate partner violence report injury as a consequence
Unintended pregnancies, gynaecological problems, and sexually transmitted infections (including AIDS/HIV)
Women who have been physically or sexually abused are 1.5 times more likely to have a sexually transmitted infection, while twice as likely to have an abortion compared to those who have not experienced intimate partner violence
Intimate partner violence within pregnancies increases risk of miscarriage, still-birth, premature delivery, and low birth weight babies
Potential depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep difficulties, eating disorders, emotional distress, suicidal ideologies, drinking problems, etc.
Health effects can include headaches, back pain, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal disorders, limited mobility, and generally poor health
Sexual violence, particularly during childhood, can lead to increased smoking, drug and alcohol misuse, and potentially hazardous sexual behaviour, associated with perpetrating as well as being victimized by such violence
Prevention and Response
Although some believe that violence against women is not a serious issue or is simply a private matter, these attitudes can be changed. To achieve lasting change, it is necessary to enact legislation and develop policies addressing discrimination against gender equality, promoting women, supporting women, and ultimately assisting them towards achieving more balanced cultural norms. Through public education, violence prevention programs, and a strong criminal justice response, violence against women in Canada can see an end. Within high-income settings, school based programs preventing relationship violence amongst youth, are backed by some evidence of effectiveness. In lower-income settings, primary prevention methods such as micro-financing, in combination with training in regards to gender equality and community-based initiatives addressing gender inequalities and communication within relationships, potentially hold promise. In combination with other organizations, WHO has been constructing evidence based on the extent and nature of violence against women, supporting efforts to establish the consequences of such violence .
First Wave Feminists:
Although first known publications demanding gender inequality were published as early as fifteenth century, First Wave Feminism didn't emerge until late 1800's
Primarily focused on gaining legal rights for women (i.e. right to vote, property rights)
Ended when women made some legal gains in North America, including property and child rights, as well as the right to vote (1970-1920)
Second Wave Feminists:
Focused on a broad range of issues occurring in 1960s, 70s and 80s
Key struggles faced with concerned affirmative action, pay equity, rape, domestic violence, discrimination, pornography and sexism within the media, and issue of reproductive choice
Fight for reproductive choice included battle for information regarding and access to methods of contraception, as well as struggle to decriminalize abortion
Third Wave Feminism:
Response to backlash received from gains made by Second Wave, Third Wave Feminism emerged 1990s
Unlike first two waves, not focused on one or two specific struggles
Although movement seems less energized, fight for equality far from over yet challenge remains with assembling and organizing individuals of diverse race, age, and class
Women's History and Feminist History
Women's History and Feminist History
The writing of women's history has always been closely linked to contemporary feminist policies. When women originally sought to question inequalities, they turned to their history to understand the roots of their oppression, learning from past challenges they faced. Between the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, feminist activists discovered women's lack of representation within historical context. This inspired them to write their own histories, in which detailed studies of women's work, trade unionism, and political activity were conducted. Suffrage supporters were anxious that achievement of vote, particularly women's role in gaining this victory, should not be lost from view. Therefore, they established organizations within the 1920s to collect source materials regarding the movement, while many campaigners produced autobiographies about the suffrage years,which are now considered classic texts. Post WWI, the women's movement was wounded and many pioneering histories were lost from view. The 1950s and 60s brought renewed interest in the history of women's suffrage, but studies conducted within this period had little influence on the overall writing of history.
The Women's Liberation Movement, or Second Wave Feminism, occurring in the later 1960s, would ultimately have the greatest impact on the writing of women's histories. Thorough investigations were conducted into various aspects of women's lives, including employment, trade unionism, women's organizations, family life, and sexuality. Social developments challenged traditional knowledge of what should be viewed as historically significant. Feminists made recognizable contributions to such developments by highlighting female experiences within institutions, through illustrating the significance of sexual divisions and by examining the interconnectedness between the public and private life. Feminists argued that family concerns, emotional support, and personal relationships serve equal importance of waged work and politics. Therefore, they began reconstructing the way in which history was typically written. Feminists contend that the power relationship displayed between genders is just as important as the relationship between social classes when understanding the process of social change. By recognizing such conflicts between men and women, standard accounts of social movements and ideas are open to reinterpretation, enabling new fields of analysis.
The writing of women's history flourished between the 1970s and 80s, although there were evident differences of emphasis and methodology. This exemplified the divisions within the women's movement, particularly between social and radical feminists. In trying to make sense of women's experiences, historians introduced the concept of patriarchy. Within the women's movement, there was growing concern regarding the predominance of white, heterosexual men, and it's affect on the writing's of women's history. Greater attention began to be paid to diversities within women, including race, ethnicity, class, and sexual orientation. Lesbian historians sought to rediscover their history from invisibility, particularly paying attention to the ways in which men's control over women's bodies, derives from the concept of patriarchy. Some feminists argued that the social development of heterosexuality throughout the late nineteenth century, assisted in maintaining male dominance. Studies of Black and Asian women illustrated the importance of race, sex, and class within their lives. Despite research growth on women's history, popular historical texts and educational courses often ignored women's experiences, viewing women's history as separate from other developments. Therefore,the 1990s called for a revision of gender history, focusing on the ways in which gender differences throughout time and across space have been constructed and understood.
Feminists suggest that a focus on women's history is the only way to ensure that sexual inequalities and the power relationship between men and women remain essential to analysis. Postmodernism has also impacted the concept of gender and women's history, as the emphasis on language and communication has challenged past feminist certainties. There has been a shift away from the concern of material conditions in women's lives, towards a focus on representation, symbolism, communication, and text. This drew attention to the multiple and conflicting ways in which women establish gender identities. In contrast to the period of First Wave Feminism, the study of women's history was not misplaced once the Women's Liberation Movement began to lose momentum. This was largely due to the fact that various organizations had been established providing women with a voice. Today, it remains important to stimulate research into both education, and community. The close relationship between contemporary feminist policies and standard historical practices, illustrates that the movement still has the ability to initiate enthusiasm, and is constantly changing.
Internationally, the victimization of women, personally and culturally, is occurring in both democratic and authoritarian establishments. Two related forms of backlash have developed based on such resentments;
Institutional (Political) Backlash
Personal Backlash
The anti-feminist backlash was not initiated based on women's full achievement of equality, yet the possibility that feminism bears in achieving so. .This counter-assault claims that the very steps enhancing women's equality, have ultimately led to their downfall. As soon as women began to gain grounds for female rights regarding affirmative action programs, just when women had joined the ranks of nearly all male-dominated and prestigious professions, once laws protecting victims of physical and sexual assaults were finally instilled, almost predictably, the anti-feminist resistance set in. Backward steps in the movement include highly coercive social welfare policies, reiteration of the myth "new female criminal", attempts to obstruct reproductive freedom, as well as extensive media coverage indicating women initiate violence against their partners as often as men do. Efforts are well underway to biologically and legally punish women.
"Custodial mothers and fathers and there children support" did a study and its proven the 13.7 million single are in the USA. They are raising 22 million children (ets).
- 82.2% of woman being single moms.
-44.2% having been divorced
-36.8 % never married.
-18% married/ re-married
-1.1% widowed
- 76 % single moms have a steady job
- 30.4% live in poverty
17.5 million children are raised without a father.
History of the Backlash
Institutional, or political, backlash occurs when progression in one direction, is countered by resistance from forces fearing change from the opposing direction. With social change, resentment and animosities build up.
1940s and 50s
saw the
first wave
of political backlash against mothers receiving welfare aid; racism was a strong factor during this time period
1960s and 70s,
general backlash was associated with progressions made during the Civil Rights Movement;
many of the white working class developed resentment
; many affirmative action policies were prone to such backlash due to these strategies benefiting one group over another, challenging the firm belief system regarding gender roles
The anti-welfare movement climaxed in the
Personal Responsibility Act of 1996
, as congressional hearings reinforced by harsh media accounts, linked welfare mothers to crimes ranging from child abuse, to raising juvenile delinquents. Under new laws,
single mothers receiving welfare were forced to look for work.

The current backlash climate has enabled a reduction in funding for feminist based social services. This overall loss of welfare benefits and services, combined with the de-institutionalization of mental patients, has resulted in an increased number of youth homelessness. This intensifies female, particularly youth vulnerability to sexual victimization, sexual exploitation, and drug use. Ironically, a parallel reduction in funding for victim assistance services and women's shelters has been noted.

This backlash is matched in the criminal justice system, by the passage of laws against drug use, resulting in the mass construction of national prisons (U.S.). These attacks personally victimize racial and ethnic minorities, immigrants, women on welfare, as well as illicit drug users. Within the criminal justice system, the anti-feminist/anti-minority backlash is often disguised, particularly through "code" words (i.e. equality, family values, war on drugs, etc.) The concept of patriarchy has joined with conservative politicians, reinforcing class, gender, and race privileges. America's "War on Drugs" is often now referred to as a war on poor, minority women. In the United States, over the past decade, the number of women in prisons has doubled, while the rate of increase in female prisoners is double the rate of increase of male prisoners.
Reproductive Freedom
A large focus of the anti-feminist movement was to restrict women's right to abortion. As a women's right to control her own body, may potentially conflict with the interests of the developing fetus, and later, the child, the subject of reproductive freedom is one in which the ant-feminist movement has illuminated.
Historically, abortion laws acknowledged the primary right a woman has to control her own body. Anti-feminists and abortion forces alike, backed by a heavily funded right wing religious movement, launched a highly effective mass media campaign, resulting in the restriction of federal abortion funding. Such movements and reductions excessively impact poor and minority women while jeopardizing global family planning programs. Loss of funding to such family planning programs is particularly damaging regarding global HIV/AIDS prevention efforts.The 2003 passage of The Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, is the first time U.S. Congress has ever banned a medical procedure. Such measures are inappropriate and dangerous, as they neglect to acknowledge concerns for the mothers health. Under the disguise of fetus protection, the prosecution of drug-addicted mothers is part of a disturbing trend toward greater government intervention regarding the lives of pregnant women.
Female Criminality
The resistance to feminism and women's bid for equality is internationally demonstrated in accusing feminism of promoting anti-family ideologies that ultimately threaten the well-being of children and in general, the community. Women receiving welfare, unmarried pregnant women, mothers with drug problems, female offenders, and even battered women, have all been singled out from society.
Day time entitlements are no longer viable to many welfare services, regardless of childcare responsibilities. If women are to be seen as mans equal, they must work. "You as an equal, will be punished as a man".
Few female offenders are feminist while even fewer benefit from related affirmative action programs, typically helping women progress in prestigious professions.
Women associated to crimes through family ties (i.e. mothers protecting drug dealing children, wives/girlfriends of illicit drug users,etc.) are now subjected to punishment under the "strong arm of the law".

Mandatory gender-neutral sentencing regarding drug law violations has brought an unusually high amount of women into prison, under the flawed impression that women have achieved full equality and men are now suffering the consequences. Unfortunately enough, the backlash is felt most by those unable to prosper from new professional opportunities feminism has provided. The rate of construction of female prisons now exceeds the male rate, with these prisons being designed according to the male model of security, often run and administered by males. The majority of women in confinement are convicted of non-violent, mostly drug-related offenses. The media's illustration of the new violent female, particularly young female offenders, further irritates conditions for female offenders.
This trend has been deemed "equality with vengeance" referring to the gender-ignorant treatment of women by major societal institutions. For example, in the United States, the following are disciplinary policies particularly relevant to poor and minority women:
social construction in mass media of "new female criminal"
passage and enforcement of fetal abuse statuses criminalizing maternal drug use
drug laws utilized to incriminate large numbers of female partners of drug dealers
laws restricting convicted drug offenders of receiving welfare aid
increase of incarceration rates among female prisoners, significantly greater than increase in rate of male incarceration
new laws removing all custody rights of mother's serving lengthily sentences
dual arrest laws arresting both partners in occurrences of domestic violence
Media Coverage:
Female Crime
Mass media both reflects and shapes the general opinion of society. The persistent media focus of "bad girls" still exits, drastically impacting female crime rates. Racial and other margined female minorities are particularly oppressed under such harsh law enforcement. Recent media focus regarding boys, has not been surrounding crime rates, yet the supposed ramifications of feminism leading to the neglect of boys needs. This new "boy crisis" is presumed to be the backlash of legal remedies ensuring equality in education for all females. This crisis is utilized by conservative authors accusing "misguided" feminists of expending resources at male expense. This contemporary media focus on male victimization and female violence does not assist the situation of women's rights. In response to the media's negative portrayal of the women's movement, the younger generation has grown to resent the term "feminism".
Claims Women as Violent as Men
The shift in sentencing associated with criminal law is paralleled in a shift in domestic violence research, now focusing on male victimization by female perpetrators. The original problem constituted by 1970s feminists of wife battering , morphed into the issue of domestic violence, and now is being considered "husband abuse", which counters decades of feminist research, theory, and activism. In the new era of husband abuse, traditional feminist assumptions are under attack. The claim of spousal abuse being gender-neutral has become the new common sense. Authors have made the same mistake as the North American media in basing these assumptions of women being more violent than men, based on studies conducted in the 1980s. This is a concern due to the exclusive focus at this time on acts performed, as to the context in which they were engaged. Equality with vengeance effectively silences feminists who have fought so hard for gender equality, as some have grown to loath complaining, in realization that they cannot have it both ways (equals of men yet request additional treatment for the weaker sex). This "one style fits all" gender neutrality approach has impacted other areas as well including child custody battles, female roles within the military, and domestic violence. The issue of whether to fight for gender equality or special treatment has not yet been resolved. Until a consensus is able to be built, the dilemma of equality vs. differential treatment will remain persistent.
Globalization and Women's Rights
anti-feminist backlash evident in counteraction to women's advances through glamorization of alpha male
France and Canada:
backlash occurring against victims of sexual assault and domestic violence
Latin America:
emergence of backlash movement result of the impact of domestic and global politics responding to opportunities presented by globalization
Middle East:
many engaged in colossal battle between forces of modernization and hierarchy
1. Institutional Backlash:
operates at a macro level within society, typically seen in laws that are created as a result of progress by a minority
2. Personal Backlash:
operates at a micro level, often taking the form of displaced aggression towards another person (i.e. interpersonal violence); such attacks may originate from external, economic stresses
Both institutional and personal backlash derive from basic female prejudice and against minorities seen as competitive, therefore threatening to men. The resentment against the progress of affirmative action in Western society is matched by the resistance to democratic principles in authoritarian nations. The technological revolution is a significant factor affecting the lives of many women. Globalization can be analyzed in both positive and negative contexts with relevance to women today.
women uniting globally through the Internet, and collectively through international organizations and conventions
globalization not only impacted lowering of trade and political restrictions, but the nature of crime, passage and enforcement of transnational laws, and on female victimization
Cultural origins of violence against women are in historically unequal proportions in relations between men and women. The low social and economic status of some women, in combination with materialism, have proven to be both a cause and effect of female violence.
Globalization and Women's Rights (continued...)
Expanding global interconnectedness has resulted in social problems overstepping national boundaries. These problems include, conditions of female refugees escaping ravages of war, mass emigration of immigrants escaping personal or political violence, sex trafficking, and women being used as "mules" to transport illegal drugs across borders. Through the communications revolution, both feminist and anti-feminist ideas and movements are reinforced as information is spread internationally. This has generated fear in certain areas of the world that as female consciousness is raised, they will demand their rights. Therefore, the counteraction takes place. The backlash is especially profound in nations in which religious principals are utilized to threaten and suppress women. In the "World's War Against Women", economic competition plays a pivotal role. As competition for well-paying, secure jobs in a global economy increases, right-wing extremist movements are able to obtain political power. Such policies require non-industrialized nations to reduce their debt to the World Bank by reducing social welfare spending. People in positions of such economic enslavement to those controlling the resources, are generally vulnerable to mistreatment as they have little aid in judicial matters.
Advocates of global economics
argue that as the economy of a country improves, more girls are educated, birth control is more widely accepted and practiced, women move into the work force, and lives of women generally improve. The
United Nations however
, reversed this proposal, stating that stopping female violence is the key to eradicating poverty as women who are not terrorized by violence, under circumstances of gender equality, are free to make decisions regarding accessing health care for themselves and their children. The international inequality existing today violates human rights.
Debunking Myths Regarding Feminism
Feminism Means Female Supremacy
Feminism is about the fight for gender equality, and in no means states women are or should be considered "better" than men
Everyone should have equal opportunity, and access to all areas of society, regardless of ones strengths or weaknesses
All people should have the chance to pursue their desired career or passion, as one should not be denied opportunity based on gender
Women desire the equal chance to excel and reach their potential within society, not to dominate men
Fight for equality does not mean depriving men of their rights, as all people can share in freedom and opportunity, without any group being deprived
Feminism ONLY Supports Ambitious Women
Recent attacks claim feminism only respects and supports those willing to work and earn money, criticizing and demeaning those women who choose to stay at home and support their family
Accusation couldn't be further from true, as feminism seeks to give both men and women the freedom to pursue whichever desired path in life
Problem with modern patriarchy is that women are often inclined to be housewives, as they are often excluded or discriminated from career opportunities
There is no problem with a man or a women choosing to stay home and take care of the family, as long as this is ones desired choice, not a forced decision due to discrimination.
Feminists Hate Men
This is one of the most common, frustrating, misconceptions regarding feminism
Typical of all movements, the more extreme branches of feminism may have more profound stances, yet the root of feminism is focused around the appreciation of the rights that all people supposedly have access to
May resent the fact that men have had it easier than women in many ways, but it is clearly counterproductive to foster feelings of hatred towards men
Change can only happen when all people work together to benefit an entire population; is not about men vs. women, but women and men working in unison.
Feminism is ONLY for Women
With the current state of government and other influential powers, men hold the political power to make changes within structures of society
Currently, women hold only 4.6% of all Fortune 1000 CEO Positions, compromise only 18% of roles assisting the Top 250 Grossing Films, and hold only 18.59% of the seats in United State's Congress (U.S. based)
Men control the media; only by working in unison with them can problems and biases ingrained in modern society be acknowledged, working towards closing the gender gap in all aspects of life
Such changes would not only affect both men and women, but benefit both as well
Women must be empowered and represented in society to better all humanity
Excluding such a substantial portion of the population from essential all important structures of society, is counterproductive.
Modern day men and women attempting to improve society for future generations, must realize that such discrimination limits a country's growth
It is not a choice of giving women great representation; it is a necessity
1. Latinos make how much less compared to men and women of colour ?

a) 55 cents

b) 64 cents

c) 34 cents
2. True or False?

According to Stats Canada, the average annual earnings of all women in Ontario compared to men is 68.5%.
3. In average, women's wages increased by what between 1988 and 2008?

a) less than 3%

b) more than 7%

c) more than 5%

d) Women's wages haven't increased
4. True or False?

Discrimination in pay is limited to one career or demographic.
5. True or False?

Part of the decrease in gender wage gap may be due to a cohort-replacement effect.
is the movement for social, political, and economic equality of all men and women. When provided with this definition of the term,
67% agree
with feminism. Additionally and unquestionably, feminism indicates a woman's right to sufficient and substantial access to information, further enabling them to make informal life decisions. The term
, is all encompassing, including racially, sexually, and financially diverse females. As feminism is a movement of individuals working together to accomplish specific goals, political and social change must be engaged with the government and law, as well as with traditional practices and beliefs. The goals of feminism are carried out by everyday women themselves. Feminism encourages one to be who they are, except with a sense of political consciousness.
, distinct from feminism's white-centered history, is an alternative projection of the same basic beliefs regarding equality and freedom, as few deny the direct link to feminism.
Women within other social justice movements
(i.e. environmental, peace, human rights, music, etc.), tend to opt for the term
. Although humanism includes men, it is a retreat from feminism. Using the term humanism to replace feminism, misuses the term in itself, as
is a rejection of the
feminism embraces equality between men and women
. The movement of feminism seeks to include women in the topic of human rights. The only people actively paving the path towards women's rights in today's society, are feminists.As most women seeking to alter or enhance their lives, eventually find feminism, it is misconceived that the movement is a huge force of conscious feminists, constantly being reinforced by substantial amounts of recruits. In reality, diminishing enrollment is an issue, reinstated by political co-optation. This means, that as soon as an issue initiated or promoted by feminists (.e. domestic violence, affordable health care, affordable day care, etc.), becomes successful or mainstream, the issue is no longer considered a women's issues, but simply a newsworthy topic. This depoliticizes many subjects, divorcing them from the initial process that was essential to their success. In order to reduce such trends, social programs must be re-evaluated to curing and preventing the diseases of society, as to simply treating the symptoms. Issues such as domestic violence and economic development must be redefined and identified as feminist issues. The feminist movement will be successful once society must no longer advocate separately for half of it's populations human rights.

1. True/ False
Third Wave Feminists were faced with issues concerning affirmative action, pay equity, rape, domestic violence, discrimination, pornography and sexism within the media, and the issue of reproductive choice.
2. True/False
Studies conducted during the 1950s and early 60s, which brought renewed interest regarding women's suffrage, had the greatest impact on the writing's of women's history.
3. Multiple Choice
Throughout Second Wave Feminism, thorough investigations were conducted into various aspects of women's lives , including:
a. Employment and Trade Unionism
b. Female Criminality
c. Family Life and Sexuality
d. Both A and C
e. All of the Above
A: d; Both A and C
4. True/False
Second Wave Feminists argued that waged work and politics served greater importance than family concerns, emotional support, and personal relationships.
5. True/False
Some feminists argued that the social development of heterosexuality throughout the late nineteenth century, assisted in maintaining male dominance.
6. True/False
Currently, there has been a shift away from the concern of female representation, symbolism and context, towards a focus on material conditions within women's lives.

Questions: History of Feminism
1. True/False
The 1960s and 70s saw the first wave of political backlash against mother's receiving welfare aid.
2. True/False
Through the Personal Responsibility Act of 1986, under new laws, mother's receiving welfare we forced to work.
3. True/False
The 2003 passage of The Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, is the first time U.S. Congress has ever banned a medical procedure.
4. Multiple Choice
Which of the following is NOT an example of disciplinary policies in the United States (particularly relevant to poor and minority women):
a. laws restricting convicted drug offenders of receiving welfare aid
b. dual arrest laws arresting both partners in occurrences of domestic violence
c. increase of incarceration rates among female prisoners, significantly greater than increase in rate of male incarceration
d. none of the above
5. True/False
Recent media focus regarding boys, has not been around the supposed ramifications of feminism leading to the neglect of boys needs, yet around crime rates.
6. Multiple Choice
Gender neutrality has impacted other areas including:
a. Child Custody Battles
b. Domestic Violence
c. Roles Within the Military
d. All of the Above
7. True/False
In Britain, the anti-feminist backlash is occurring against victims of sexual assault and domestic violence.
8. True/False
Institutional backlash is typically seen in laws that are created as a result of progress by a minority.
9. True/False
Advocates of global economics argue that stopping female violence is the key to eradicating poverty as women who are not terrorized by violence, under circumstances of gender equality, are free to make decisions regarding accessing health care for themselves and their children.
10. Multiple Choice
Which of the following is NOT a common myth regarding feminism:
a. Feminists Hate Men
b. Feminism Only Supports Vulnerable Women
c. Feminism is About Female Supremacy
d. None of the Above
Questions: Backlash Against Feminism
1. True/False
Intimate Partner Violence is any sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, or any other act directed against ones sexuality using coercion, by any person, regardless of the relationship to the victim, including rape.
2. Multiple Choice
Emotional Abuse does not include:
a. threats to kill or commit suicide
b. forcing or denying the right to work
c. making humiliating or degrading comments regarding body and behaviour
d. peer and family isolation
e. None of the Above
3. Multiple Choice
In Canada, __________ sexual assault offenders are convicted annually.
a. 1100
b. 2000
c. 1500
d. 1700
4. True/False
In 2011, Saskatchewan and Alberta had rates of violence against females, double the national rate.
5. True/False

82% of all child sexual assault victims are female.
6. Multiple Choice
Which of the following is NOT an example of risks specifically experienced by disabled women:
a. increased difficulty leaving abuser
b. higher rates of emotional abuse
c. discrimination within the health care system
d. prevention from necessary assistive devices
7. True/False
Women who leave their partner, attempting to raise child(ren) themselves, are twice as likely to become poor than women who remain with their partner.
8. True/False
In lower-income settings, school based programs preventing relationship violence amongst youth, are backed by some evidence of effectiveness.

Questions: Violence Against Women
1. True/False
Secular Feminism: began in early 1970s, initiated by feminist efforts towards equality; concerned with religious practice regarding treatment of women within Church.
2. True/False
Spiritual Feminism began in the nineteenth century, when liberalism viewed paradise (the ultimate goal of evolution) as located on earth, as to in heaven.
3. True/False
Herstory utilizes the manipulative technique of conscious raising to recount women's personal experiences of perceived oppression, to weaken the newly created WomanChurch, and strengthen the previous, dominant Church.
4. Multiple Choice
Which of the following is NOT a recreated feminist celebration:
a. their Revelation
b. their Eucharist
c. their Word
d. their Sacrament of Penance
e. None of the Above
5. True/False
The Catholic Church may withhold information from women while religious feminism respects women enough to tell them the full truth regarding human life and sexuality, never discouraging obtaining information about ones body, trusting them with the truth, whether it is convenient or not.
6. True/False
Pro-choice feminism respects women only once they have reached a certain age (usually 36 weeks), while the Catholic Church respects all women, regardless of how small or voiceless.
Questions: Feminism Within the Catholic Church
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