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Transcript of Morphine Presentation
IUPAC name: (5a,6a)-7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6-diol
Today morphine is used medically to treat for extreme and severe pain, and also before surgery.
It is rarely used and sold illegally (most commonly abused by people who have easy access to it, if at all).
To prevent this, prescriptions could be checked more thoroughly for legitimacy when morphine is prescribed.
Some derivatives of morphine are more commonly abused, such as heroin, which could be better handled by:
-not allowing it into the country (often from Afghanistan and Pakistan)
-more education around the subject
-more help for those who are addicted
Morphine is a drug that has many negative side effects including both long term and short term. Morphine is very addictive drug and can cause a number of serious health issues.
Short Term Effects
Long Term Effects
How the situation could be improved
Once morphine has been ingested it can interact immediately with many different structures around the human body causing mild to severe damage.
Short Term Effects Include:
Loss of Cognitive Abilities: As with a lot of pain killers, morphine impairs the user making them drowsy and nauseous causing loss of fine motor skills.
Constipation: Morphine reacts with the myenteric plexus in the intestinal track limiting the production of gut motility which in turn causes constipation.
Effects On Heart: Users experience a drastic loss in blood pressure and heart rate which can cause flushing of the face, faintness (Lightheaded), and an abnormal heart beat.
Administering in smaller doses to avoid people becoming addicted or dependent
Using less intense painkillers when necessary to avoid the serious side-effects of morphine
Medication that blocks the brain from morphine euphoria (what makes morphine addictive)
The long term effects of morphine are far more serious than the some of the short term effects and are also the reason why the drug is so dangerous.
Long Term Effects Include:
Addiction: The most severe and deadly side effect of the pain killer is that it is highly addictive. When a user first starts taking the drug, endorphins are released to give the user a warm euphoric feeling, over time the opiates tricks the brain to stop the production of these endorphins so that the user can only feel "happy" when they take the drug.
A lot of the short term effects over time worsen and can be very dangerous. These include; worsening of cardiovascular health, deterioration of fine motor skills, and liver failure.
The benzylisoquinoline backbone of the morphine molecule is shown in green
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occuring nitrogen-containing bases found primarily in plants
Morphine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid
Primary structure consists of a benzene ring (A), two partially unsaturatedcyclohexane rings (B and C), a piperidine ring (D) and a tetrahydrofuran ring (E)
2 hydroxyl functional groups at C3 and C6
Ether linkage between C4 and C5
Amine functional group at position 17
Morphine was first isolated in 1804 by German apothecary Friedrich Sertürner
Originally named “morphium” after Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams and slumber
Morphine is the most abundant opiate found in opium, accounting for 9-14% of opium-extract by mass. Opium is a substance derived from the seedpods of the Papaver Somniferum poppy.
It was the first active principle to be purified from a plant source and is one of at least 50 alkaloids of several different types present in opium
As with most drugs, overdosing is a huge problem that has the potential to be very lethal. Morphine is no different, a large intake of the drug can cause asphyxia to the user due to respiratory depression. If medical attention is not found quickly, the user may very well die. Treatment for overdose is usually to be administered with naloxone, a drug with similar properties to morphine, however it blocks the opiate receptors in the brain to quickly lessen the effects of morphine. If the person given naloxone is addicted to morphine, it will immediately trigger withdrawal causing extreme discomfort to the user.
Morphine is a
Binds/activates opioid receptors in brain and spinal chord
fast-acting central nervous system depressant
Duration of analgesia:
3-4 hours intravenously
3-6 hours orally
Relieve immediate pain
Relieve fear and anxiety
Relieve severe, continuous pain
Reduce shortness of breath
Considered to be one of the best drugs for pain relief.
In the military
+10 million doses given to soldiers in The Civil War (1861-65)
Useful for treating gastro-intestinal illnesses, such as diarrhea and dysentery
Relief of long/short term pain and other symptoms
Used commonly for cancer pantients, used in cough medications, and until recently, pregnant women
Used for opiate substitution therapy in parts of Europe
By recovering addicts who are "not held" by buprenorphine or methadone