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AQA Applied Business Unit 12 Managing People

Complete revision guide for AQA Applied Business Unit 12
by

Katie Jones

on 16 January 2013

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Transcript of AQA Applied Business Unit 12 Managing People

Unit 12 Management: Roles,
responsibilities and skills Roles and
responsibilities Helps to co-ordinate a business’s activities

Contains business objectives and how to fulfill them Planning Managers needs organisational skills

Managers are expected to use the minimal amount of resources in whatever they do Organisation Monitoring and Evaluating Evaluate individual management decisions

Helps managers improve the business’s performance Reporting Provides important information that managers can use in decision-making and planning Management Skills Technical Skills A manager will have the technical skills related to their area Communication Skills Articulate their ideas and argue their points

Listen to others views

Speak a second language

Have good verbal and written communication Organisational Skills Managers have to organise people and resources effectively Interpersonal Skills Motivates workers

Enables them to interact effectively

Can communicate in a formal and informal manner Organisational
Structure Tall or Flat? Refers to the spans of control in a company Centralised or Decentralised ? Refers to the decision making process
within a company Matrix or Hierarchical? Refers to the structure of a company Tall Flat Many levels of hierarchy

Span of control is narrow

Opportunities for promotion

Lines of communication are long Few levels of hierarchy

Span of control is wide

Severely reduced chance
of promotion

Lines of communication are
short Centralised Decentralised Decisions are taken by senior
managers

Decisions passed down the
hierarchy

Rapid decision making

Ensures objectives are set by
management Decisions are delegated Junior employees gain a better
understanding of operational matters Motivates junior employees to make their
own decisions and use their initiative Slows making decision time Hierarchical Matrix Organisation structured in layers

Roles and responsibility is
determined by where you are
in structure

Higher you are the more authority
you have Organisation structured in groups Can cause issues as employee has more than
on manager Good communication between all levels
as drawn from different areas Leadership Styles Autocratic Leaders make all the decisions

No or little input from employees Advantages Disadvantages Incredibly efficient

Fast decision making

Employees can focus
on their own task

No worry of
employees making the
wrong decision Can lead to resentment
due to being bossy

Employees dependent
on leader

Slow and less
responsive to
decision-making

Employees cant use
their own initiative Paternalistic Leaders take interest in employees
views

Consult with junior employees

Make most of the decisions Advantages Disadvantages Employees feel looked
after

Loyal workers

Low labour turnover Employees not
encouraged to use skills
or initiative Democratic Leaders delegate power

Encourage junior employees
to express views and ideas

Explain why a decision has
been made Advantages Disadvantages Develops managerial
skills in junior
employees

Raises staff morale
and motivation as
views and ideas taken
into account Slow decision making

Inconsistency in
decision making

Managers may try and
absolve themselves of
responsibility Participative Gives employees high degree of
control over decisions Advantages Disadvantages Managers to utilise
talents of subordinates

Increases skills and
confidence in juniors

enables to develop new
ideas and approaches Slow decision making

Inconsistency in
decision making Laissez-faire Leaders have little say in decision
making in the company Advantages Disadvantages Shows degree of trust

Utilises the employees
talents to the fullest

Skilled professionals
can get on with their
job! Lack of co-ordination
and direction

Neglect planning Power and Authority Coercive Power Uses fear to gain power

Maintained by use of force,
threats or punishment Effect of Coercive
Power Lead to high labour turnover

Communication negatively
affected Reward Power Uses rewards to gain power

Employees expect to benefit
from completing tasks Effect of Reward
Power Employees more likely to voice
opinions, take on more tasks and
responsibilities Expert Power Particular skills or knowledge
can give a leader power

The more important the skill or
knowledge, the more power Effect of Expert
Power Managers may prevent others
acquiring the expert knowledge

Difficulties are likely to arise
when the expert leaves Legitimate Power Power derives from position
in company

Higher you are the more
power you have Effect of
Legitimate Power Most acceptable form of power Referent Power Power derives from leaders
charisma

Can work outside of other
powers Effect of
Referent Power Can be exercised by anyone

Leader and subordinates likely
to have similar values Motivation Theories Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Sets out five needs he believed every employee wants satisfied through work

More levels of the hierarchy can be achieved by the employee the more satisfied they will be

1:

2:

3:

4:

5: Herzberg's Two Factor Theory Satisfaction and dissatisfaction arose from different factors in the work place

Factors that would cause satisfaction and motivation:






Factors that would cause dissatisfaction: McGregor's Theory X & Y Theory X Theory Y Making decisions Types of decisions Routine Non-routine Routine decisions occur
regularly

Decisions can be made by
all manger levels

Where the decisions is
a major one then,
a senior manager will
have to make the final
decision Non-routine decisions
occur irregularly

Decisions can be made by all
manager levels

Where more important and
more effect it has on the
company, the more likely it
will be made by a more
senior manager Tactical Strategic Based on short term factors

Made by middle managers

More important than more
likely to be made by senior Based on long term factors

Made by senior managers

Decisions are only taken
after prolonged discussions
and data collection Pro-active Reactive Decisions taken in advance
of an event

Managers at all levels
can make this type of
decision Reactive decisions are taken
when a business responds
to an event

Reactive decisions can be
taken by all levels of
management
Full transcript